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Hundred Years' War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) was an intermittent conflict between England and France lasting 116 years. It began principally because King Edward III (r. 1327-1377) and Philip VI (r. 1328-1350) escalated a dispute over feudal rights...
Henry III of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry III of England

Henry III of England ruled from 1216 to 1272 CE. The son of the unpopular King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE), Henry was immediately faced with the ongoing Barons' War which had been fuelled by discontent over John's rule and his failure...
Wars of the Roses
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487) was a dynastic conflict between the English nobility and monarchy which led to four decades of intermittent battles, executions, and murder plots. The English elite was split into two camps, each centred...
William the Conqueror
Definition by Mark Cartwright

William the Conqueror

William the Conqueror (c. 1027-1087), also known as William, Duke of Normandy, led the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 when he defeated and killed his rival Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings. Crowned King William I of England...
Causes of the Wars of the Roses
Article by Mark Cartwright

Causes of the Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a series of dynastic conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility of England. The 'wars' were a series of intermittent, often small-scale battles, executions, murders, and failed plots as the political...
Glorious Revolution
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 saw Protestant William of Orange (l. 1650-1702) invade England and take the throne of Catholic James II of England (r. 1685-1688). There were no battles, and William was invited by Parliament to become...
The Ancient Celtic Pantheon
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Ancient Celtic Pantheon

The ancient Celtic pantheon consisted of over 400 gods and goddesses who represented everything from rivers to warfare. With perhaps the exception of Lugh, the Celtic gods were not universally worshipped across Iron Age Europe but were very...
Tower of London
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Tower of London

The Tower of London is a castle located in London alongside the River Thames which was first built by William the Conqueror from c. 1077 and significantly added to over the centuries. Often referred to in England as simply 'the Tower', it...
Winthrop & Williams: Religious Persecution & Freedom in New England
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Winthrop & Williams: Religious Persecution & Freedom in New England

The Puritans who settled New England claimed they came to the New World for religious freedom but, once settled, made it clear that this freedom was for themselves only and dissent would not be tolerated. Although the most famous example...
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628-1691 CE) was the largest English settlement in New England and the most influential both in the colonization of the region and later developments in what would become the United States of America. It was founded...
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