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Songhai Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire (aka Songhay, c. 1460 - c. 1591) replaced the Mali Empire (1240-1645) as the most important state in West Africa (covering modern southern Mauritania and Mali). Originating as a smaller kingdom along the eastern bend of...
Juba II
Definitionby Arienne King

Juba II

Juba II (c. 48 BCE - 23 CE) was a Numidian prince and the king of Mauretania from c. 25 BCE until his death in 23 CE. He was raised in the household of Julius Caesar (c. 100-44 BCE) and married Cleopatra Selene II (40 - c. 17/5 BCE), the...
Map of Ancient & Medieval Sub-Saharan African States
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Map of Ancient & Medieval Sub-Saharan African States

A map indicating the major ancient and medieval states in sub-Saharan Africa. Areas and dates relate to a state at its peak. In addition, shaded areas are approximate indicators only. For the majority of the states, their precise borders...
The Empires of West Africa
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

The Empires of West Africa

The ancient and medieval Mediterranean might have been a bustling stage of ever-changing empires but, across the inhospitable barrier of the Sahara Desert, West Africans were equally busy building up and toppling down their own kingdoms and...
Kilwa
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Kilwa

Kilwa, an island located off the coast of East Africa in modern-day southern Tanzania, was the most southern of the major Swahili Coast trading cities that dominated goods coming into and out of Africa from and to Arabia, Persia, and India...
Maasai People
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Maasai People

The Maasai (or Masai) people are an East African tribe who today principally occupy the territory of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania, and who speak the language of the same name. The Nilo-Saharan Maasai migrated southwards to that region...
Old Dongola
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Old Dongola

Old Dongola (aka Dungulah or Dunkula), located in modern Sudan, was the capital of the ancient Nubian kingdom of Dongola (aka Makuria or Makurra) which flourished from the 6th to 14th century CE. A Christian kingdom for at least 750 years...
Gaiseric
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Gaiseric

Gaiseric (r. 428-478 CE, also known as Genseric and Geiseric) was the greatest king of the Vandals who remained undefeated from the time he took the throne until his death. He was probably born in 389 CE near Lake Balaton (present day Hungary...
The Spread of Islam in Africa
Imageby Mark Cartwright

The Spread of Islam in Africa

A map indicating the general direction and timings of the spread of Islam in Africa from the 7th to 18th century CE
Map of Roman Africa
Imageby H.Kiepert

Map of Roman Africa

Nothern Africa under Roman rule. From H.Kiepert (1879), Historischer Schulatlas.
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