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Byzantine Empire
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire existed from 330 to 1453. It is often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium. The Byzantine capital was founded at Constantinople by Constantine I (r. 306-337). The Byzantine Empire varied in size over the...
Byzantine Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Architecture

The architecture of the Byzantine Empire (4th - 15th century CE) continued its early Roman traditions but architects also added new structures to their already formidable repertoire, notably improved fortification walls and domed churches...
Byzantine Art
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Art

Byzantine art (4th - 15th century CE) is generally characterised by a move away from the naturalism of the Classical tradition towards the more abstract and universal, there is a definite preference for two-dimensional representations, and...
Byzantine-Armenian Relations
Article by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine-Armenian Relations

The relationship between the Byzantine Empire and ancient Armenia was a constant and varied one with an equal mix of wars, occupations, treaties of friendship, mutual military aid, and cultural exchange. Regarded as a vital defence to the...
Despotate of Epirus
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Despotate of Epirus

The Despotate of Epirus was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire when it disintegrated following the Fourth Crusade's capture of Constantinople in 1204 CE. It was originally the most successful of those successor states, coming...
Women in the Byzantine Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Women in the Byzantine Empire

Women in the Byzantine Empire (4th to 15th century CE) were, amongst the upper classes, largely expected to supervise the family home and raise children while those who had to work for a living did so in most of the industries of the period...
The Differences Between Byzantine & Armenian Christianity
Article by Michael Goodyear

The Differences Between Byzantine & Armenian Christianity

Although both the Byzantines and the Armenians were Christian, the types of Christianity they professed had important differences that led to a lack of recognition and tensions between the two groups and a considerable part of their relationship...
Byzantine Coinage
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Coinage

The coinage of the Byzantine Empire continued that of its more ancient predecessors and functioned as a convenient method of payment for goods and services, especially to soldiers and officials, and as a means for people to pay their taxes...
Despotate of the Morea
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Despotate of the Morea

The Despotate of the Morea was a semi-autonomous appanage of the later Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines retook part of the Peloponnese in Southern Greece in 1262 CE, but the Morea was only officially governed by semi-autonomous despots of...
Byzantine Emperor
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Emperor

The Byzantine Emperor ruled as an absolute monarch in an institution which lasted from the 4th to 15th century CE. Aided by ministers, high-ranking nobility, and key church figures, the emperor (and sometimes empress) was commander-in-chief...
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