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The Negative Confession
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Negative Confession

The Negative Confession (also known as The Declaration of Innocence) is a list of 42 sins which the soul of the deceased can honestly say it has never committed when it stands in judgment in the afterlife. The soul would recite these in the...
Ghosts in the Ancient World
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ghosts in the Ancient World

A belief in an afterlife was central to every major civilization of the ancient world and this encouraged the recognition of the reality of ghosts as the spirits of the departed who, for one reason or another, either returned from the realm...
Field of Reeds (Aaru)
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Field of Reeds (Aaru)

A'Aru (The Field of Reeds) was the Egyptian afterlife, an idealized vision of one's life on earth (also known as Sekhet-A'Aru and translated as The Field of Rushes). Death was not the end of life but a transition to another part of one's...
Ancient Egyptian Religion
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Religion

Egyptian religion was a combination of beliefs and practices which, in the modern day, would include Egyptian mythology, science, medicine, psychiatry, magic, spiritualism, herbology, as well as the modern understanding of 'religion' as belief...
Apophis
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Apophis

Apophis (also known as Apep) is the Great Serpent, enemy of the sun god Ra, in ancient Egyptian religion. The sun was Ra's great barge which sailed through the sky from dawn to dusk and then descended into the underworld. As it sailed through...
Osiris
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Osiris

Osiris is the Egyptian Lord of the Underworld and Judge of the Dead, brother-husband to Isis, and one of the most important gods of ancient Egypt. The name `Osiris' is the Latinized form of the Egyptian Usir which is interpreted as 'powerful'...
Ancient Egyptian Burial
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Burial

Egyptian burial is the common term for the ancient Egyptian funerary rituals concerning death and the soul's journey to the afterlife. Eternity, according to scholar Margaret Bunson, “was the common destination of each man, woman and child...
The Egyptian Book of the Dead: A Guidebook for the Underworld - Tejal Gala
Videoby TED-Ed

The Egyptian Book of the Dead: A Guidebook for the Underworld - Tejal Gala

View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-egyptian-book-of-the-dead-tejal-gala Ancient Egyptians believed that in order to become immortal after death, a spirit must first pass through the underworld — a realm of vast caverns, lakes...
The Coffin Texts
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Coffin Texts

The Coffin Texts (c. 2134-2040 BCE) are 1,185 spells, incantations, and other forms of religious writing inscribed on coffins to help the deceased navigate the afterlife. They include the text known as the Book of Two Ways which is the first...
Grave Goods in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Grave Goods in Ancient Egypt

The concept of the afterlife changed in different eras of Egypt's very long history, but for the most part, it was imagined as a paradise where one lived eternally. To the Egyptians, their country was the most perfect place which had been...
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