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Xois (as the Greeks called it) was a vast ancient city located on a marshy island in the center of the Nile Delta of Egypt, modern-day Sakha. It was founded c. 3414-3100 BCE and was continuously inhabited until the rise of Christianity c. 390 CE. By the time of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt (2498-2345 BCE), Xois was already regarded as an ancient city. It served as the capital of Egypt during the reign of the Hyksos in Egypt and was the site of the pivotal battle between Ramesses III (1186-1155 BCE) and the Sea Peoples with their Libyan allies in 1178 BCE.

More about: Xois


  • c. 3414 BCE - c. 3100 BCE
    Xois founded as a city during the 1st Dynasty.
  • 3100 BCE - 2181 BCE
    Xois inscribed on Palermo Stone as an ancient city during the 5th Dynasty.
  • 1650 BCE - 1550 BCE
    Xois serves as capital of the 14th Dynasty.
  • 1180 BCE - 1178 BCE
    Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty fortifies Xois against the threat of the invading Sea Peoples.
  • 1178 BCE
    Ramesses III defends Egypt from the Sea Peoples on the shores at Xois, defeating them completely.