Frederick II Timeline

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  • 1194
    Frederick II is born in Jesi, Italy.
  • 1197
    Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, Frederick II's father, dies.
  • 1198 - 1250
    Frederick II rules over Sicily.
  • 1198
    Constance of Sicily, Frederick II's mother, dies.
  • 1198 - 1208
    Philip of Swabia, Frederick II's uncle, rules over Germany.
  • 1208
    Philip of Swabia was murdered.
  • 1209
    Frederick II marries Constance of Aragon and begins consolidating his hold over Sicily.
  • 1209 - 1215
    Otto IV rules Germany.
  • 1211
    Frederick II's first son, Henry VII, is born.
  • 1215 - 1250
    Frederick II rules over Germany.
  • 1215
    Frederick II defeats Otto IV, with the help of Philip Augustus of France.
  • 1218
    Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV dies.
  • 1218
    Yolande dies giving birth to Frederick II's second son: Conrad IV.
  • 1220 - 1250
    Frederick II rules over the Holy Roman Empire.
  • 1220
    Frederick II is crowned as the Holy Roman Emperor in Rome.
  • 1220
    Assizes of Capua enacted to gain control over Sicily.
  • 1221
    Assizes of Messina enacted.
  • 1222
    Frederick II's first wife, Constance of Aragon, dies.
  • 1224
    Frederick II establishes the University of Naples.
  • 1225 - 1228
    Frederick II rules as the king of Jerusalem.
  • 1225
    Frederick II marries Yolande/Isabella II of Jerusalem.
  • 1227
    Frederick II departs for a Crusade but turns back due to illness.
  • 1228 - 1229
    The Sixth Crusade is formed by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. It achieves through diplomacy Christian control of Jerusalem.
  • 7 Sep 1228
    Frederick II arrives in the Levant on the Sixth Crusade.
  • 1229 - 1230
    Frederick II's first war with the Papacy.
  • 18 Feb 1229
    The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Frederick II and al-Kamil to hand over Jerusalem to Christian rule.
  • 1230
    Treaty of Cepranno signed between Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX.
  • 1231
    Constitutions of Melfi.
  • 1235
    Frederick II's son Henry VII revolts in Germany. Revolt is crushed.
  • 1236 - 1242
    Multiple Mongol armies attack western Asia, Russia, Poland, and Hungary.
  • 1237
    Battle of Cortenuova, Frederick II defeats the Lombards.
  • 1241
    Battle of Giglio, a decisive naval victory for the imperial fleet of Frederick II against the Genoese.
  • 1241
    Rome barely escapes Frederick II's grasp, as Gregory IX dies and the emperor turns back.
  • 1242
    Henry VII, King of Germany, dies.
  • 1245
    Innocent IV excommunicates and deposes Frederick II.
  • 1248
    Battle of Parma, imperial forces of Frederick II are routed by the Lombards.
  • 1249
    Battle of Fossalta, imperial forces are defeated by the army of Bologna.
  • 1250
    Frederick II dies.
  • 1250
    Battle of Cingoli, decisive imperial victory against an invasion force sent to Sicily.