Egyptian Medicine


Medical practice in ancient Egypt was so advanced that many of their observations, policies, and commonplace procedures would not be surpassed in the west for centuries after the fall of Rome and their practices would inform both Greek and Roman medicine. They understood that disease could be treated by pharmaceuticals, recognized the healing potential in massage and aromas, had male and female doctors who specialized in certain specific areas, and understood the importance of cleanliness in treating patients.

More about: Egyptian Medicine


  • c. 3000 BCE
    Medical School at the Temple of Neith as Sais, run by a female physician.
  • c. 2700 BCE
    Chief Physician Merit-Ptah is first female doctor/scientist in the world known by name.
  • c. 2667 BCE - 2600 BCE
    Imhotep, architect to Djoser, considered "First Physician".
  • c. 2600 BCE
    Hesyre is first dentist in the world known by name.
  • c. 2500 BCE
    Pesehet is "Lady Overseer of Female Physicians".
  • c. 1800 BCE
    Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus text written.
  • c. 1782 BCE - c. 1570 BCE
    London Medical Papyrus written during the Second Intermediate Period.
  • c. 1600 BCE
    Edwin Smith Papyrus copy written.
  • c. 1570 BCE - c. 1069 BCE
    Berlin Medical Papyrus copy dated to New Kingdom.
  • c. 1570 BCE - c. 1069 BCE
    Hearst Papyrus copy written.
  • c. 1550 BCE
    Ebers Papyrus copy written.
  • c. 200 CE - c. 300 CE
    Demotic Magical Papyrus written.