Baruch Spinoza


Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) was a Dutch philosopher who combined rationalism and metaphysics to create a unique system of thought. Spinoza was held up as an atheist philosopher in the 18th century, but this is not an entirely accurate representation of his views since he did not deny the existence of God but only theorised that he might be different from the orthodox view of most Jews and Christians. An advocate for religious toleration, Spinoza's redefinition of God won him anything but toleration for his views in his own lifetime.

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