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Sparta
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Sparta

Sparta was one of the most important city-states in ancient Greece and was famous for its military prowess. The professional and well-trained Spartan hoplites with their distinctive red cloaks and long hair were probably the best and most...
Cynisca of Sparta
Definitionby Philip Mathew

Cynisca of Sparta

Cynisca of Sparta (b. c. 440 BCE) was a Spartan royal princess who became the first female Olympic champion. Defying the traditional role of women in ancient Greece, she competed in the Olympic Games alongside the men and won. Her triumph...
Gorgo of Sparta
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Gorgo of Sparta

Gorgo was the queen of the Greek city-state of Sparta, daughter of the king Cleomenes (r. 520-490 BCE), wife of King Leonidas (r. 490-480 BCE), and mother of King Pleistarchus (r. 480-458 BCE). Her birth and death dates are unclear as women...
Peloponnesian League
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Peloponnesian League

The Peloponnesian League (c. 550 BCE - c. 366 BCE) was a loose confederation of Greek city-states led by Sparta. The League was the oldest and longest-lasting political association in the ancient Greek world. For Sparta, the League gave it...
Leonidas I of Sparta
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Leonidas I of Sparta

Leonidas was the Spartan king who famously led a small band of Greek allies at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BCE where the Greeks valiantly defended the pass through which the Persian king Xerxes sought to invade Greece with his massive...
Peloponnesian War
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta and their respective allies came in two stages: from c. 460 to 446 and from 431 to 404 BCE. With battles at home and abroad, the long and complex conflict was damaging to both sides. Sparta...
Spartan Women
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Spartan Women

Spartan women had more rights and enjoyed greater autonomy than women in any other Greek city-state of the Classical Period (5th-4th centuries BCE). Women could inherit property, own land, make business transactions, and were better educated...
The Delian League, Part 5: The Peace of Nicias, Quadruple Alliance, and Sicilian Expedition (421/0-413/2 BCE)
Articleby Christopher Planeaux

The Delian League, Part 5: The Peace of Nicias, Quadruple Alliance, and Sicilian Expedition (421/0-413/2 BCE)

This text is part of an article series on the Delian League. The fifth phase of the Delian League begins with the Peace of Nicias – a settlement that settled nothing – and ends with the start of the Decelean War (also referred to as the...
Lysander
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Lysander

Lysander (d. 395 BCE) was a Spartan statesman and general who famously defeated the Athenian navy at the Battle of Aigospotamoi in 405 BCE, which finally won the Peloponnesian War. Lysander gained a reputation for a fiery personality, daring...
The Delian League, Part 6: The Decelean War and the Fall of Athens (413/2-404/3 BCE)
Articleby Christopher Planeaux

The Delian League, Part 6: The Decelean War and the Fall of Athens (413/2-404/3 BCE)

This text is part of an article series on the Delian League. The sixth and last phase of the Delian League begins with the Decelean War, also referred to as the Ionian War, and ends with the surrender of Athens (413/2 – 404/3 BCE). The...