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Berbers
Definition by Reed Wester-Ebbinghaus

Berbers

The Berbers have occupied North Africa, specifically the Maghreb, since the beginning of recorded history and until the Islamic conquests of the 8th century CE constituted the dominant ethnic group in the Saharan region. Modern Berber speakers...
Roman Expeditions in Sub-Saharan Africa
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Roman Expeditions in Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa was explored by Roman expeditions between 19 BCE - 90 CE, most likely in an effort to locate the sources of valuable trade goods and establish routes to bring them to the seaports on the coast of North Africa, thereby minimizing...
North Africa During the Classical Period
Article by Library of Congress

North Africa During the Classical Period

Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast around 900 B.C. and established Carthage (in present-day Tunisia) around 800 B.C. By the sixth century B.C., a Phoenician presence existed at Tipasa (east of Cherchell in Algeria). From...
The Splendours of Roman Algeria
Article by Carole Raddato

The Splendours of Roman Algeria

Algeria, Africa's largest country, stretches from the Mediterranean coastline to the Saharan desert interior. The country has some of the finest and most diverse Roman sites, including Timgad and Djémila, both well-preserved and UNESCO-listed...
Exploring Roman Morocco
Article by Carole Raddato

Exploring Roman Morocco

Morocco, then known as Mauretania, was annexed by the Roman Empire in 40 CE. The Romans in Morocco left a vast legacy with archaeological sites that dot the country's northern landscape, especially Volubilis, with its vestiges of Roman houses...
Kahina
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Kahina

Kahina (7th century CE) was a Berber (Imazighen) warrior-queen and seer who led her people against the Arab Invasion of North Africa in the 7th century CE. She is also known as al-Kahina, Dihya al-Kahina, Dahlia, Daya, and Dahia-al-Kahina...
The Salt Trade of Ancient West Africa
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Salt Trade of Ancient West Africa

Salt from the Sahara desert was one of the major trade goods of ancient West Africa where very little naturally occurring deposits of the mineral could be found. Transported via camel caravans and by boat along such rivers as the Niger and...
Umayyad Dynasty
Definition by Syed Muhammad Khan

Umayyad Dynasty

The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE), the first dynasty to take the title of Caliphate, was established in 661 CE by Muawiya (l. c. 602-680 CE), who had served as the governor of Syria under the Rashidun Caliphate, after the death of the fourth...
Abd al-Rahman III
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Abd al-Rahman III

Abd al-Rahman III was an Umayyad prince who reigned as Emir of Cordoba, and later Caliph of Cordoba, from 912 to 961 CE. His reign is remembered as a golden age of Muslim Spain and Umayyad rule, epitomized by his declaration of the second...
Carthage
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Carthage

Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the...
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