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The Atrahasis Epic: The Great Flood & the Meaning of Suffering
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Atrahasis Epic: The Great Flood & the Meaning of Suffering

The Atrahasis is the Akkadian/Babylonian epic of the Great Flood sent by the gods to destroy human life. Only the good man, Atrahasis (his name translates as `exceedingly wise') was warned of the impending deluge by the god Enki (also known...
Ellora Caves
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Ellora Caves

Ellora (also known as Elura and, in ancient times, as Elapura) is a sacred site in Maharastra, central India. The Ellora Caves are listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and is celebrated for its Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain temples and monuments...
The Art of the Tang Dynasty
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Art of the Tang Dynasty

The art of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) began to explore new possibilities in materials and styles with landscape painting and ceramics, in particular, coming to the fore. New techniques, a wider range of colours and an increase in connoisseurship...
The Dexileos Stele: A Study of Aristocracy and Democracy in Greek Art
Articleby James Lloyd

The Dexileos Stele: A Study of Aristocracy and Democracy in Greek Art

The Dexileos Stele assesses the way that Athenian political thought penetrated all levels of society, showing the conflict that the aristocratic classes were faced with in trying to find their place within the Athenian Democracy. As a visual...
Tea in Ancient China & Japan
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Tea in Ancient China & Japan

Tea, still probably the world's most popular prepared beverage, was first drunk by Chinese monks to aid meditation and those who valued its medicinal qualities, but it quickly grew in popularity, spreading to other East Asian cultures, especially...
Ancient Armenia
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Armenia

Ancient Armenia, located in the south Caucasus area of Eurasia, was settled in the Neolithic era but its first recorded state proper was the kingdom of Urartu from the 9th century BCE. Incorporated into the Persian Empire of Cyrus the Great...
Ancient Persian Culture
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Culture

Ancient Persian culture flourished between the reign of Cyrus II (The Great, r. c. 550-530 BCE), founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, and the fall of the Sassanian Empire in 651 CE. Even so, the foundations of Persian culture were already...
Shapur II
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Shapur II

Shapur II (r. 309-379 CE, also Sapur II) was the tenth monarch of the Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) and among the most successful. Under his reign – which lasted his entire life – the Avesta (Zoroastrian scripture) was committed to writing...
Mamikonian Dynasty
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mamikonian Dynasty

The Mamikonians were a powerful clan group who were influential in Armenian political and military affairs from the 1st century BCE onwards. They rose to particular prominence from c. 428 CE to 652 CE in the half of Armenia ruled by the Sasanian...
Women in Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia were not only highly respected but, in many cases, considered the equals of males. Women could own land, conduct business, received equal pay, could travel freely on their own, and in the case of royal women, hold...
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