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Agriculture in the British Industrial Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Agriculture in the British Industrial Revolution

Agriculture, like most other areas of working life, was greatly affected by the machines invented during the Industrial Revolution. Agriculture in Britain and elsewhere had made leaps forward in the 18th century, and its success released...
British Industrial Revolution
Definition by Mark Cartwright

British Industrial Revolution

The British Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) brought innovative mechanisation and deep social change. The process saw the invention of steam-powered machines, which were used in factories in ever-growing urban centres. Agriculture remained...
Why the Industrial Revolution Started in Britain
Article by Mark Cartwright

Why the Industrial Revolution Started in Britain

The Industrial Revolution saw a wave of technological and social changes in many countries of the world in the 18th and 19th centuries, but it began in Britain for a number of specific reasons. Britain had cheap energy with its abundant supply...
The Railways in the British Industrial Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Railways in the British Industrial Revolution

The railways were perhaps the most visible element of the Industrial Revolution for many. Trains powered by steam engines carried goods and people faster than ever before and reached new destinations, connecting businesses to new markets...
Trade Unions in the British Industrial Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade Unions in the British Industrial Revolution

Trade unions were formed in Britain during the Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) to protect workers from unnecessary risks using dangerous machines, unhealthy working conditions, and excessive hours of work. The trade union movement was vigorously...
Slavery in Colonial America
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Slavery in Colonial America

Slavery in Colonial America, defined as white English settlers enslaving Africans, began in 1640 in the Jamestown Colony of Virginia but had already been embraced as policy prior to that date with the enslavement and deportation of Native...
Pets in Colonial America
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Pets in Colonial America

Pets in Colonial America were kept by the colonists for the same reasons they were in Europe: for companionship and, in the case of dogs, for protection, hunting, and herding. Cats controlled vermin in homes and barns until the 18th century...
The Wyndclyffe Estate
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Wyndclyffe Estate

There are many fascinating and forlorn ruins throughout New York’s Hudson Valley, and, among them, the tottering remains of what was once considered the grandest home in the area and among the most famous in the country: Wyndclyffe. Between...
The Gilded Age Estates of Staatsburg, New York
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Gilded Age Estates of Staatsburg, New York

The great estates of the Gilded Age were more than lavish displays of wealth for the American aristocracy c. 1870-1917, they supported the economy of the local communities and encouraged development. As they declined, many of the surrounding...
In the Forest - Exhibition Interview Schweizerisches Landesmuseum
Interview by James Blake Wiener

In the Forest - Exhibition Interview Schweizerisches Landesmuseum

The forest is a habitat for people, animals, and plants, a provider of invaluable resources, and an ally in the fight against climate change. The greatest beneficiary of the forest is humanity – but it is also its greatest threat. Over the...
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