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Reforms of Catherine the Great
Article by Liana Miate

Reforms of Catherine the Great

Catherine II of Russia (Catherine the Great) was the empress regent of Russia from 1762 to 1796. During the mid-18th century, Russia was still regarded as culturally behind compared to Western European countries. However, during her reign...
B-17 Flying Fortress
Definition by Mark Cartwright

B-17 Flying Fortress

The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress was a four-engined heavy bomber plane used by the air forces of the United States and Britain during the Second World War (1939-45). The B-17 had unusually heavy defensive armament, 13 machine guns in total...
Richard Wagner
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Richard Wagner

Richard Wagner (1813-1883) was a German composer of Romantic music most famous for his epic operas like The Ring, Tannhäuser, and Tristan and Isolde. Wagner was concerned throughout his career with the theme of redemption through love and...
Supermarine Spitfire
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Supermarine Spitfire

The Supermarine Spitfire was a single-seater fighter plane, one of the most important aircraft of the Second World War (1939-45). Employed by the Royal Air Force in such crucial encounters as the Battle of Britain in the summer of 1940, the...
Johannes Brahms
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) was a German composer of Romantic music best known for his symphonies, songs, and orchestral, chamber, and piano music. A great student of the history of music, Brahms was convinced that only by working within...
Investiture Controversy
Definition by Michael Griffith

Investiture Controversy

The Investiture Controversy, also referred to as the Investiture Contest or Investiture Dispute, was a conflict lasting from 1076 to 1122 between the papacy of the Catholic Church and the Salian Dynasty of German monarchs who ruled the Holy...
Teutonic Knight
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Teutonic Knight

A medieval Teutonic Knight was a member of the Catholic military Deutscher Orden or Teutonic Order, officially founded in March 1198 CE. The first mission of the Teutonic knights was to help retake Jerusalem from the Arabs in the Third Crusade...
Italian & German Unification: Crash Course
Video by CrashCourse

Italian & German Unification: Crash Course

So, we haven't talked much about Italy and Germany so far in Crash Course Euro, and that's because prior to the mid-19th Century CE, those two nation-states weren't really a thing. Today we'll look at how Italy and Germany pulled it together...
Effects of the Black Death on Europe
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Effects of the Black Death on Europe

The outbreak of plague in Europe between 1347-1352 – known as the Black Death – completely changed the world of medieval Europe. Severe depopulation upset the socio-economic feudal system of the time but the experience of the plague itself...
Protestant Reformation
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation (1517-1648) refers to the widespread religious, cultural, and social upheaval of 16th-century Europe that broke the hold of the medieval Church, allowing for the development of personal interpretations of the Christian...
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