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Unam Sanctam: Spiritual Authority & the Medieval Church
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Unam Sanctam: Spiritual Authority & the Medieval Church

The Unam Sanctam (1302) was a papal bull issued by Pope Boniface VIII (served 1294-1303) requiring the complete submission of all people, including kings, to the authority and dictates of the pope. As the Church was understood as holding...
Justinian II
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Justinian II

Justinian II “the Slit-nosed” ruled as emperor of the Byzantine Empire in two spells: from 685 to 695 CE and then again from 705 to 711 CE. It was after his first reign and prior to his exile that his nose was cut off by the usurper...
Leo VI
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Leo VI

Leo VI was emperor of the Byzantine empire from 886-912 CE. He was the second emperor of the Macedonian dynasty and is sometimes known as “Leo the Wise” in reference to his prolific literary output which ranged from orations to...
Isaac I Komnenos
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Isaac I Komnenos

Isaac I Komnenos was the Byzantine emperor from 1057 to 1059 CE. Although his reign was brief, he was known for being a capable and militarily astute general and emperor. As the first emperor to lead troops himself in battle in over 30 years...
Capitals of the Roman Empire: Constantinople & RomeĀ 
Article by Greg Woolf / Oxford University Press

Capitals of the Roman Empire: Constantinople & RomeĀ 

Constantinople at first had much in common with the temporary capitals of the 2nd and 3rd century CE and the tetrarchic capitals. It was an existing city of medium size, well located on the road network, and unlike most of them, it was also...
Inscription, Arch of Constantine I
Image by Mark Cartwright

Inscription, Arch of Constantine I

The inscription which appears on both sides of the Arch of Constantine I in Rome. Dedicated in 315 CE, the triumphal arch celebrates the emperor's victory over the Roman tyrant Maxentius in 312 CE. The inscription reads: IMP CAES FL CONSTANTINO...
Gold Coin Pendant of Constantine
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Gold Coin Pendant of Constantine

Gold pendant set with a coin of Constantine the Great, c 320s CE. The British Museum, London. The pendant is made in a pierced metalwork technique popular in fine jewellery of the time. The obverse of the coin depicts a bust of Constantine...
Detail of the Arch of Constantine
Image by Dennis Jarvis

Detail of the Arch of Constantine

A detail of the Arch of Constantine in Rome, built in c. 315 CE to commemorate the Roman emperor's victory over Maxentius in 312 CE. On each side of the arch four free-standing Corinthian columns support statues of Dacian prisoners taken...
Gold Medallion of Constantine the Great
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Gold Medallion of Constantine the Great

Medallions with designs similar to coins could be worn as a symbol of allegiance, or given as prestigious gifts. They were specifically to be attractive, as display or presentation pieces. Gold medallion of the Roman Emperor Constantine I...
Arch of Constantine I
Image by Mark Cartwright

Arch of Constantine I

The north side of the Arch of Constantine I in Rome. Dedicated in 315 CE, the triumphal arch celebrates the emperor's victory over the Roman tyrant Maxentius in 312 CE. It is the largest surviving triumphal arch and the last great Imperial...
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