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Achaemenid Silver and Gold Horn Cup
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Achaemenid Silver and Gold Horn Cup

This object combines both Syrian and Persian styles. While the shape of the cup echoes a classical Persian wine-pourer (rhyton), it actually functioned as a drinking cup. Large animal-headed cups were popular in Syria in earlier periods...
Ancient Persian Government
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Government

The government of ancient Persia was based on an efficient bureaucracy which combined the centralization of power with the decentralization of administration. The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) founded by Cyrus the Great (r. c. 550-530...
Artaxerxes II
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Artaxerxes II

Artaxerxes II (r. 404-358 BCE, also known as Artaxerxes II Mnemon) was the 10th monarch of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE). He was the son of Darius II (r. 424-404 BCE) and Parysatis (who was Darius II's half-sister) and older brother...
Ardashir I
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ardashir I

Ardashir I (l. c. 180-241 CE, r. 224-240 CE) was the founder of the Persian Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) and father of the great Sassanian king Shapur I (r. 240-270 CE). He is also known as Ardashir I Babakan, Ardeshir I, Ardashir the Unifier...
Achaemenid Persian Market Scene
Image by Amplitude Studios

Achaemenid Persian Market Scene

Artist's impression of what a market scene may have looked like in the Achaemenid Persian empire. A ziggurat constructed prior to the Achaemenid period is visible in the background. Created by Amplitude Studios for the video game Humankind.
Achaemenid Silver Bowl
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Achaemenid Silver Bowl

This was among the first Achaemenid silver objects discovered in Iran. The light inscriptions are probably ancient marks of ownership. They were found on many other silver bowls. They confirm the comment made about the Persians by the 5th...
Ancient Persia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persia

Persia (roughly modern-day Iran) is among the oldest inhabited regions in the world. Archaeological sites in the country have established human habitation dating back 100,000 years to the Paleolithic Age with semi-permanent settlements (most...
Achaemenid Silver Drinking Bowl
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Achaemenid Silver Drinking Bowl

This silver drinking bowl is decorated with applied gold sheet cutouts. There are 2 rows of figures or "royal heroes" separated by rosettes. Each royal hero carries a bow and quiver on their back. At the top, there is a border of battlements...
Achaemenid Gold Armlet
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Achaemenid Gold Armlet

This is one of a pair of golden armlets. These objects are among the most important surviving items from ancient Persian craftsmanship. It is likely that they were intended for display rather than being worn. The lion-griffin terminals were...
Achaemenid Lion Weight
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Achaemenid Lion Weight

One side of this heavy weight is inscribed in Aramaic with "correct according to the stater of silver". This probably refers to the use of a weight standard based on the silver coins known as staters. This object weighs just over 31 kg, which...
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