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The Secret History of the Mongols
The Secret History of the Mongols is a chronicle written in the 13th century CE (with some later additions) and is the most important and oldest medieval...
Conwy Castle, Wales
Conwy Castle in north Wales. The castle was built by Edward I of England (r. 1272-1307 CE) from 1283 to 1289 CE.
Legio XXI Rapax
Legio XXI Rapax was a legion of the Roman army whose name name "Rapax" means "rapacious" or "greedy". It is not clear when the legion assumed this name...
Viking Hygiene, Clothing, & Jewelry
Although the Vikings are routinely depicted as rough, grimy, and violent, they were actually quite refined, took personal hygiene seriously, and wore...
Pirate Clothing in the Golden Age of Piracy
Pirates have gained a reputation for wearing bright and distinctive clothing and accessories during the Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1730) even if, in...
Edward England was an Irish pirate who operated in the Caribbean, the Eastern Atlantic, and the Indian Ocean between 1717 and 1720 during the Golden...
Temple at Uppsala
The Temple at Uppsala was a religious center dedicated to the Norse gods Thor, Odin, and Freyr located in what is now Gamla Uppsala in Sweden. It is...
Slavery in Plantation Agriculture
The first plantations in the Americas of sugar cane, cocoa, tobacco, and cotton were maintained and harvested by African slaves controlled by European...
Edward 'Ned' Low was an English pirate active in the Caribbean and eastern Atlantic from 1721 to 1724 during the Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1730). Probably...
Ten Norse Mythology Facts You Need to Know
The stories that make up what is known today as Norse mythology once informed the religious beliefs of the people of regions including Scandinavia and...
John Rackham (d. 1720), also known as Jack Rackham or 'Calico Jack' for his preference for cotton clothing, was an English pirate during the Golden...
Valhalla ("Hall of the Slain") is the afterlife realm in Norse mythology for fallen heroes selected by Odin’s Valkyrie to become members of the army...
Who's Who in a Pirate Crew
It was all very well pocketing other people’s valuables and roistering at rum parties, but life on a pirate ship involved a surprising amount of hard...
Bronze Age Aegean
The Bronze Age (c. 3000-1000 BCE) is the period when cultures were either using, producing, or trading bronze. Several cultures flourished around the...