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Carthage
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Carthage

Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the...
Trade in the Roman World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Roman World

Regional, inter-regional and international trade was a common feature of the Roman world. A mix of state control and a free market approach ensured goods produced in one location could be exported far and wide. Cereals, wine and olive oil...
The Masaesyli and Massylii of Numidia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Masaesyli and Massylii of Numidia

The North African Berber kingdom of Numidia (202-40 BCE) was originally inhabited by a tribe (or federation of tribes) known as the Masaesyli, to the west, and a coalition of smaller tribes, known as the Massylii, to the east. The meaning...
Chiusi
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Chiusi

Chiusi (Etruscan name: Clevsin, Roman: Clusium), located in central Italy, was an important Etruscan town from the 7th to 2nd century BCE. Relations with the Romans famously soured when the king of Chiusi, Lars Porsenna, attacked Rome at...
Food in the Roman World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Food in the Roman World

The ancient Mediterranean diet revolved around four staples, which, even today, continue to dominate restaurant menus and kitchen tables: cereals, vegetables, olive oil and wine. Seafood, cheese, eggs, meat and many types of fruit were also...
Punic Wars
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Punic Wars

The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought between the forces of ancient Carthage and Rome between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. The name Punic comes from the word Phoenician (Phoinix in the Greek, Poenus from Punicus in Latin) as applied to...
The Brothers Gracchi: The Tribunates of Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
Articleby Steven Fife

The Brothers Gracchi: The Tribunates of Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus

Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were a pair of tribunes of the plebs from the 2nd century BCE, who sought to introduce land reform and other populist legislation in ancient Rome. They were both members of the Populares, a group of politicians...
The Propaganda of Octavian and Mark Antony's Civil War
Articleby Jesse Sifuentes

The Propaganda of Octavian and Mark Antony's Civil War

Propaganda played an important role in Octavian (l. 63 BCE - 14 CE) and Mark Antony's (l. 83 – 30 BCE) civil war, and once victorious at the Battle of Actium (31 BCE), Octavian returned home to become the first Roman emperor. The decade...
Julius Caesar: The Faults Behind the Myth
Articleby Marc Hyden

Julius Caesar: The Faults Behind the Myth

Last March marked the anniversary of Julius Caesar's assassination over 2,000 years ago, and after two millennia, his legendary achievements still linger in today's consciousness just as they have for centuries. He was so revered that in...
Rome's Response to the Spread of Christianity
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Rome's Response to the Spread of Christianity

During the 1st century CE, a sect of Jews in Jerusalem claimed that their teacher, Jesus of Nazareth, was the 'messiah' of Israel. 'Messiah' meant 'anointed one', or someone chosen by the God of Israel to lead when God would intervene in...
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