Roman Forum - 3D View
The home of Roman civic and social life, the Roman Forum lay in the very heart of Roman cultural topography. Nestled amidst the greatest monuments of Rome - the Colosseum, the Palatine Hill, the Capitoline complex and the Circus Maximus -...
3D view of the interior of the Colosseum in Rome, as a tourist can visit it today.
Trade in Ancient Egypt
Trade has always been a vital aspect of any civilization whether at the local or international level. However many goods one has, whether as an individual, a community, or a country, there will always be something one lacks and will need...
Bust of a Roman Woman, Possibly Lucilla
Roman sculpture of a noble woman, possibly Lucilla, wife of emperor Lucius Verus (r. 161-169 CE). The masterful use of veined marble imitates the pattern of her cloak, while two different marbles give the appearance of white skin and black...
Trade in the Byzantine Empire
Trade and commerce were essential components of the success and expansion of the Byzantine Empire. Trade was carried out by ship over vast distances, although for safety, most sailing vessels were restricted to the better weather conditions...
Society in the Byzantine Empire
The society in the Byzantine Empire (4th-15th century CE) was dominated by the imperial family and the male aristocracy but there were opportunities for social advancement thanks to wars, population movements, imperial gifts of lands and...
Procopius on the Plague of Justinian: Text & Commentary
The Plague of Justinian (541-542 CE and onwards) is the first fully documented case of bubonic plague in history. It is named for the emperor of the Byzantine Empire at the time, Justinian I (r. 527-565 CE) and recorded by his court historian...
Icons, that is images of holy persons, were an important part of the Byzantine Christian Church from the 3rd century CE onwards. Venerated in churches, public places, and private homes, they were often believed to have protective properties...
Achaemenid Kings List & Commentary
The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) was the first great Persian political entity in Western and Central Asia which stretched, at its peak, from Asia Minor to the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia through Egypt. It was founded by Cyrus II (the...
The Differences Between Byzantine & Armenian Christianity
Although both the Byzantines and the Armenians were Christian, the types of Christianity they professed had important differences that led to a lack of recognition and tensions between the two groups and a considerable part of their relationship...