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Treasure & Booty in the Golden Age of Piracy
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Treasure & Booty in the Golden Age of Piracy

During the Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1730), pirates were first and foremost after gold, silver, and jewels, but if these could not be grabbed, then a ship’s cargo would be taken for resale at a pirate haven. Shared amongst the crew, the...
Plato's Lie In The Soul
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Plato's Lie In The Soul

The Greek philosopher Plato (l. c. 428-348 BCE), in Book II of his Republic, addresses the problem of how one knows that one's beliefs are true. His line of thought raises questions such as, 'How do you know whether your most deeply-held...
The Gifts of Isis: Women's Status in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Gifts of Isis: Women's Status in Ancient Egypt

A story on a papyrus dating from the 2nd century CE relates that the goddess Isis, bestowing gifts on humanity, gave as much power and honor to women as she did to men. This tale reflects the high status women enjoyed in ancient Egypt...
A Brief History of Tobacco in the Americas
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

A Brief History of Tobacco in the Americas

The history of tobacco use in the Americas goes back over 1,000 years when natives of the region chewed or smoked the leaves of the plant now known as Nicotiana rustica (primarily in the north) and Nicotiana tabacum (mostly in the south...
The Nerge: Hunting in the Mongol Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Nerge: Hunting in the Mongol Empire

The peoples of the Mongol Empire (1206-1368 CE) were nomadic, and they relied on hunting wild game as a valuable source of protein. The Asian steppe is a desolate, windy, and often bitterly cold environment, but for those Mongols with sufficient...
Ancient Cyprus: A Travel Guide
Articleby Carole Raddato

Ancient Cyprus: A Travel Guide

Lying at the crossroads of the eastern Mediterranean, the island of Cyprus has long been a meeting point for many of the world's great civilizations. Situated where Europe, Asia and Africa meet, its location shaped its history of bringing...
Roman Glass
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Roman Glass

Roman glassware includes some of the finest pieces of art ever produced in antiquity and the very best were valued higher than wares made with precious metals. However, plain glass vessels such as cups, bowls, plates, and bottles were also...
Dinner with the Romans: An Interview with Farrell Monaco
Interviewby Arienne King

Dinner with the Romans: An Interview with Farrell Monaco

The ancient Romans left behind a wealth of remains which help archaeologists and historians to understand what daily life was like in the Roman Empire. From ancient frescos of rich table spreads, to broken wine vessels, carbonized loaves...
Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire

Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire involved the Christian faithful travelling often huge distances to visit such holy sites as Jerusalem or to see in person relics of holy figures and miraculous icons on show from Thessaloniki to Antioch...
Jesuit Influence on Post-medieval Chinese Astronomy
Articleby Sean Lim

Jesuit Influence on Post-medieval Chinese Astronomy

Ancient China had seen little Western contact before the 16th century CE, the language, culture and science all being allowed to develop independently of foreign influence. By the time European Jesuit missionaries arrived in the 16th century...
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