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Itsukushima Shrine
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Itsukushima Shrine

Itsukushima Shrine is a Shinto shrine on the island of the same name, also known as Miyajima, located in Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Traditionally founded in the 6th century CE, the present layout of buildings dates to the 12th...
Early Joseon Period
Definitionby Ben Griffis

Early Joseon Period

The Early Joseon Period (1392 - c. 1550 CE) in Korea was bookended by internal power struggles but witnessed major scientific and societal advances and prosperity. The Joseon (Choson) Dynasty ruled Korea from 1392 CE to 1897 CE, and scholars...
Ferdowsi
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ferdowsi

Abolqasem Ferdowsi (l. c. 940-1020 CE, also given as Abul-Qasem Ferdowsi Tusi, Firdawsi, Firdausi) is the author of the Shahnameh (The Persian Book of Kings), one of the greatest works of world literature and the national epic of Iran. He...
The Clouds
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

The Clouds

The Clouds is a comedy written c. 423 BCE by the Greek playwright Aristophanes (c. 448 BCE – c. 385 BCE). A failure at the Dionysia competition, finishing third out of three, it was revised later in 418 BCE but never produced in the author's...
Emperor Wuzong of Tang
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Emperor Wuzong of Tang

Wuzong of Tang (also Wu-Tsung, formerly Li Yan) reigned as emperor of China from 840 to 846 CE. He is best remembered today for his persecution of Buddhists, the worst such attack in all of China's history, and his early death by insanity...
James IV of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

James IV of Scotland

James IV of Scotland ruled as king from 1488 to 1513 CE. He succeeded his father James III of Scotland (r. 1460-1488 CE) and became one of the most popular of the Stuart kings. James sought to apply justice in every corner of his realm, he...
Marcus Gavius Apicius
Definitionby John Horgan

Marcus Gavius Apicius

Marcus Gavius Apicius, a wealthy and educated member of the Roman elite who lived during the reign of Emperor Tiberius (14-37 CE), is famous for his love of food and a cookbook titled De Re Coquinaria (The Art of Cooking). He was a model...
Xunzi
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Xunzi

Xunzi (pronounced shund-zee, l. c. 310-c. 235 BCE) was a Confucian philosopher of the Warring States Period (c. 481-221 BCE) in China. He is also known as Hun Kuang, Hsun Tzu, Xun Tzu, and Xun Kuang. Xunxi translates as Master Xun and is...
Etymologiae
Definitionby Laurence Leech

Etymologiae

The Etymologiae (Etymologies) is a Latin work by Isidore of Seville (l. c. 560 - 636 CE), compiled in the early 7th century CE and published in its final form shortly after his death. The book is a type of medieval encyclopedia and is a survey...
Edward England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Edward England

Edward England was an Irish pirate who operated in the Caribbean, the Eastern Atlantic, and the Indian Ocean between 1717 and 1720 during the Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1730). Captain England’s successful but brief pirate career came to an...
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