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Geghard
Definitionby James Blake Wiener

Geghard

Geghard (Armenian: Geghardavank or "monastery of the spear") is a medieval monastery located in Armenia's Kotayk province, deep within the Azat Valley, which was built directly out of an adjacent mountain. Geghard is renown throughout...
Choe Chiwon
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Choe Chiwon

Choe Chiwon (857-915 CE) was a celebrated poet and scholar of the Unified Silla kingdom which ruled Korea from 668 to 935 CE. Choe Chiwon adopted the pseudonym or brush name 'Orphan Cloud' and he became the most celebrated scholar-official...
To-ji
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

To-ji

The To-ji Shingon Buddhist temple complex is located in Kyoto, Japan. Founded in 796 CE, its five-storey wooden pagoda is the largest in Japan, a symbol of the city, and listed as a National Treasure. The complex includes other examples of...
Early Christianity
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Early Christianity

Emerging from a small sect of Judaism in the 1st century CE, early Christianity absorbed many of the shared religious, cultural, and intellectual traditions of the Greco-Roman world. In traditional histories of Western culture, the emergence...
Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess Full Text & Summary
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess Full Text & Summary

The Book of the Duchess is the first major work of the English poet Geoffrey Chaucer (l. c. 1343-1400 CE), best known for his masterpiece The Canterbury Tales, composed in the last twelve years of his life and left unfinished at his death...
Buddhism in Ancient Japan
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Buddhism in Ancient Japan

Buddhism was introduced to ancient Japan via Korea in the 6th century CE with various sects following in subsequent centuries via China. It was readily accepted by both the elite and ordinary populace because it confirmed the political and...
A Visitor's Guide to Rome's Frontier in Germany
Articleby Carole Raddato

A Visitor's Guide to Rome's Frontier in Germany

In the 2nd century CE, the Roman Empire stretched from Scotland in northern Europe to the deserts of southern Egypt, encompassing the entirety of the Mediterranean basin. Beyond that lay its borders. Where there was no natural frontier such...
Alexander the Great: A Case Study in Martial Leadership
Articleby Christopher Berg

Alexander the Great: A Case Study in Martial Leadership

History is not predictable; in many ways it can take on a life of its own. But sometimes, an individual's sheer presence is enough to bend history to his will. One such individual was Alexander the Great. Through his conviction, vision, mental...
Five Key Historical Sites of the Hittites
Articleby Carole Raddato

Five Key Historical Sites of the Hittites

Although mentioned several times in the Biblical texts, the actual existence of the Hittites was largely forgotten until the late 19th century CE. With the discovery of Hattusa in 1834 CE, the city that was for many years the capital of the...
Ghosts in Ancient Japan
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Ghosts in Ancient Japan

Ghosts (obake or yurei) appear in ancient Japanese folklore and literature, usually in moral tales designed to both warn and entertain but they were also an important element of ancestor worship. If the deceased members of a family were not...