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Cylinder Seals in Ancient Mesopotamia - Their History and Significance
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Cylinder Seals in Ancient Mesopotamia - Their History and Significance

Among the most interesting and revealing artifacts discovered from ancient Mesopotamia are the objects known as cylinder seals. These fairly small items may be seen today in museum exhibits around the world but, perhaps owing to their size...
Pompeii: Graffiti, Signs & Electoral Notices
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Pompeii: Graffiti, Signs & Electoral Notices

WARNING: This article contains sexually explicit language that might not be appropriate for children or teenagers. The Roman town of Pompeii was preserved in metres of volcanic material following the cataclysmic eruption of Mt. Vesuvius...
Famous Grammarians & Poets of the Byzantine Empire
Articleby Helene Perdicoyianni-Paleologou

Famous Grammarians & Poets of the Byzantine Empire

In the wake of the downfall of the Western Roman Empire and the intellectual collapse of Athens, Byzantine scholars engaged in preserving the Classical Greek language and its literature. Thus they became the guardians of a vanished culture...
Monk Working in Scriptorium
Imageby Unknown

Monk Working in Scriptorium

Depiction of a monk at work copying a text by hand in a writing room known as a scriptorium. From the 5th to the 13th century CE monasteries were the sole producers of books. The scriptorium was a large room with wooden chairs and writing...
Ivory Writing-Board from Nimrud
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Ivory Writing-Board from Nimrud

This is the outer cover of the ivory writing-boards (6 in number) incised with four lines of Assyrian cuneiform text, giving the title of the astrological script which was a compilation of omens ordered by Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II (reigned...
Li Po Writing Poetry
Imageby The Trustees of the British Museum

Li Po Writing Poetry

17th-century, woodcut recreation of Li Po writing 100 verses while drinking a quart of wine seated on the veranda with a group of men.
Ancient China
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient China

Ancient China produced what has become the oldest extant culture in the world. The name 'China' comes from the Sanskrit Cina (derived from the name of the Chinese Qin Dynasty, pronounced 'Chin') which was translated as 'Cin' by the Persians...
Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia

Daily life in ancient Mesopotamia cannot be described in the same way one would describe life in ancient Rome or Greece. Mesopotamia was never a single, unified civilization, not even under the Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great (r. 2334-2279...
Seshat, Goddess of Writing
Imageby Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund

Seshat, Goddess of Writing

A limestone relief slab depicting Seshat, the Egyptian goddess of writing. ca. 1919-1875 BCE. (Brooklyn Museum, USA).
Gildas
Definitionby Wesley Fiorentino

Gildas

Gildas (c. 500-570 CE) was a Romano-British monk, known primarily for a work entitled De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, translated as On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain. Gildas' work is a polemical sermon recounting British history while...