Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare
In the search for ever more impressive and lethal weapons to shock the enemy and bring total victory the armies of ancient Greece, Carthage, and even sometimes Rome turned to the elephant. Huge, exotic, and frightening the life out of an...
The Attalid Dynasty ruled an empire from their capital at Pergamon during the 3rd and 2nd century BCE. Fighting for their place in the turbulent world following the death of Alexander the Great, the Attalids briefly flourished with Pergamon...
Antipater (Macedonian General)
Antipater (c. 399-319 BCE) was a Macedonian statesman and loyal lieutenant of both Alexander the Great and his father Philip II of Macedon. As a regent in Alexander's absence, Antipater subdued rebellions and mollified uprisings, proving...
The Wars of the Roses: Consequences & Effects
The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a dynastic conflict where the nobility and monarchs of England intermittently battled for supremacy over a period of four decades. Besides the obvious consequences of Lancastrian and Yorkist kings...
Amastris (c. 340/39-285 BCE) was a niece of the Persian king Darius III (r. 336-330 BCE) through her father Oxyathres. She was married in succession to Alexander's general Craterus, the tyrant Dionysius of Heraclea, and finally to Lysimachus...
Lucius Flavius Arrianus, commonly known as Arrian (86 - c. 160 CE) was a Greek historian, philosopher, and statesman from Nicomedia, capital of the Roman province of Bithynia. Arrian is recognized as one of the most renowned authors of the...
Map of the Successor Kingdoms, c. 303 BCE
Map of the Diadochi successor kingdoms to Alexander the Great's empire, before the Battle of Ipsus (301 BCE).
The Army of Alexander the Great
No military commander in history has ever won a battle by himself. To be successful he needs the support of a well-trained army who will follow him regardless of the cost whether it be a stunning victory or hopeless defeat. One need only...
Hellenistic Successor Kingdoms c. 301 BCE
A map illustrating the Hellenistic World and the successor kingdoms of the Diadochi (Alexander the Great's successors) c. 301 BCE.
Diadochi Satraps 323 BCE
The Diadochi satraps following the agreement made in Babylon in 323 BCE.