The medieval period of Japan is considered by most historians to stretch from 1185 to 1603 CE. Stand out features of the period include the replacement of the aristocracy by the samurai class as the most powerful social group, the establishment...
In the late 6th century BCE, the small city-state of Rome overthrew the shackles of monarchy and created a republican government that, in theory if not always in practice, represented the wishes of its citizens. From this basis the city would...
Viking Raids on Paris
Throughout the 9th century CE, Viking raids on the region of Francia (roughly modern-day France) increased in frequency, destabilizing the region, and terrorizing the populace. The raids seem to have been inspired by the death of the Holy...
Portuguese Angola in southwest Africa was the first European colony on that continent. While settlement from 1571 proved problematic in the interior, the Portuguese did obtain a large number of slaves which they shipped to their Atlantic...
Legio I Adiutrix
Legio I Adiutrix was a legion of the Roman army formed from veteran sailors after the death of Roman emperor Nero (r. 54-68 CE). During its long career, the legion accompanied Trajan (r. 98-117 CE) on his Dacian and Parthian campaigns, fought...
Roman Warfare in the Age of Pyrrhus
The Roman army fought many conflicts throughout its long history, though perhaps none so indelible as the Pyrrhic War from 280 to 275 BCE. This war between Rome and a league of Greek colonies in southern Italy led by the city of Tarentum...
The Tudor Rose
A Tudor Rose, created by Henry VII of England (r. 1485-1509 CE) to symbolise the unification of the Houses of York (white rose) and Lancaster (red rose) following the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE). From the ceiling of Haddon Hall, Derbyshire...
Khalid ibn al-Walid's Campaign in Arabia
Map detailing the route of the conquest of central Arabia by Khalid ibn al-Walid (585 - 642 CE) during the Ridda Wars, culminating in the decisive battle of Yamama (633 CE). Battles are shown as crossed swords (or scimitars) and the Rashidun...
A 16th-century portrait of the Bohemian general Jan Zizka (l. c. 1360 – 1424), a prominent participant in the Hussite Wars (1419-c. 1434). (Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest)
Plucking the Red & White Roses
"Plucking the Red & White Roses in the Old Temple Gardens" by Henry Payne (1868 - 1940 CE). The painting depicts Richard of York challenging Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset to choose between the White Rose of House York and the Red...