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William I of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

William I of Scotland

William I of Scotland, also known as 'William the Lion' after his heraldic emblem, reigned from 1165 to 1214 CE. Succeeding his elder brother Malcolm IV of Scotland (r. 1153-1165 CE), William was faced with a shrinking kingdom, but he harboured...
Via Flaminia at Carsulae
Imageby Carole Raddato

Via Flaminia at Carsulae

The Via Flaminia was constructed for military purposes by Gaius Flaminius in 220 BCE. It went through the ancient town of Carsulae (Umbria, Italy) and became its main road (cardo maximus) of which 400 metres are still visible. The so-called...
The Oxford Handbook of Engineering & Technology in the Classical World
Book Reviewby Mark Cartwright

The Oxford Handbook of Engineering & Technology in the Classical World

Another heavyweight offering from the Oxford Handbook series which covers technology in the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. As with other books in the series, each chapter is written by a specialist in their field giving a comprehensive...
Roman Bridges (General) - Ancient Rome Live
Videoby American Institute for Roman Culture

Roman Bridges (General) - Ancient Rome Live

The Romans employed the arch in the construction of their bridges to span the Tiber River, approximately 100 m wide. The actual arches were composed of voussoir blocks typically faced in ashlar blocks (tuff, travertine) with a concrete rubble...
Who's Who in a Pirate Crew
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Who's Who in a Pirate Crew

It was all very well pocketing other people’s valuables and roistering at rum parties, but life on a pirate ship involved a surprising amount of hard work. Pirates were first and foremost sailors and in the Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1730...
Artillery in Medieval Europe
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Artillery in Medieval Europe

Artillery weapons in medieval Europe included the mounted crossbow (ballista) and single-arm torsion catapult (mangonel), both similar to ancient Roman machines. As armies battled further afield such as in the Byzantine Empire and against...
Egyptian Medical Treatments
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Egyptian Medical Treatments

The ancient Egyptians experienced the same wide array of disease that people do in the present day, but unlike most people in the modern era, they attributed the experience to supernatural causes. The common cold, for example, was prevalent...
Shiva Nataraja - Lord of the Dance
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Shiva Nataraja - Lord of the Dance

The great Hindu god Shiva has many guises and many representations in art, but perhaps the most familiar is as a dancing figure within a circle of fire, that is as Shiva Nataraja, Lord of the Dance. It is an image seen in museums, temples...
The Value of Family in Ancient Greek Literature
Articleby Eric D. Bernholc

The Value of Family in Ancient Greek Literature

When looking at Ancient Greek literature, one can see the importance family plays in Greek culture. We see this displayed in the Greek works Medea by Euripides and Antigone by Sophocles. Throughout these literary works we see that family...
Etruscan Clothing
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Clothing

The clothing of the ancient Etruscans, a civilization which flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE, can be seen in many media of their art including wall paintings, bronze sculpture, stone relief carvings, and painted...
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