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Ancient Persian Art and Architecture
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Art and Architecture

Persian art and architecture in the present day is associated with the nation of Iran and usually designated as beginning with the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) but has an even longer history with its origins dating back to before the...
Ardashir I
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ardashir I

Ardashir I (l. c. 180-241 CE, r. 224-240 CE) was the founder of the Persian Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) and father of the great Sassanian king Shapur I (r. 240-270 CE). He is also known as Ardashir I Babakan, Ardeshir I, Ardashir the Unifier...
Cincinnatus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Cincinnatus

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was a Roman consul (460 BCE) and dictator (458 and 439 BCE), a legendary figure in the early days of the Roman Republic. He responded to a call from the city fathers, left his plow lying in the fields, donned...
The Heritage of Cuicul
Articleby Irene Fanizza

The Heritage of Cuicul

There are few places on earth where we can say that these stones, on which we are standing, are the same stones where feet rested centuries before. These places are important. We walk in the Roman Forum, we explore the ruins of the...
Pietro Perugino
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Pietro Perugino

Pietro Perugino (c. 1450-1523 CE), real name Pietro di Cristoforo Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance artist who created frescoes for the Vatican's Sistine Chapel and was in demand across Italy to decorate church interiors and produce...
Etruscan Architecture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Architecture

The architecture of the Etruscan civilization, which flourished in central Italy from the 8th to 3rd century BCE, has largely been obliterated both by the conquering Romans and time, but the very influence of the Etruscans on Roman architecture...
Arch of Triumph in Palmyra
3D Imageby arck-project

Arch of Triumph in Palmyra

The Arch of Triumph was a Roman ornamental archway in Palmyra, Syria. It was built in the 3rd century during the reign of emperor Septimius Severus. Its ruins later became one of the main attractions of Palmyra, until it was destroyed by...
Roman Science
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Science

The Romans assimilated earlier Greek science for their own purposes, evaluating and then accepting or rejecting that which was most useful, much as they did in other fields such as warfare, art, and theatre. This assimilation of Greek thought...
Roman Art
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Art

The Romans controlled such a vast empire for so long a period that a summary of the art produced in that time can only be a brief and selective one. Perhaps, though, the greatest points of distinction for Roman art are its very diversity...
Septimius Severus
Definitionby Patrick Hurley

Septimius Severus

Lucius Septimius Severus was Roman emperor from April 193 to February 211 CE. He was of Libyan descent from Lepcis Magna and came from a locally prominent Punic family who had a history of rising to senatorial as well as consular status...
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