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Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare

In the search for ever more impressive and lethal weapons to shock the enemy and bring total victory the armies of ancient Greece, Carthage, and even sometimes Rome turned to the elephant. Huge, exotic, and frightening the life out of an...
Roman Standard
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Roman Standard

The Roman Standard (Latin: Signum or Signa Romanum) was a pennant, flag, or banner, suspended or attached to a staff or pole, which identified a Roman legion (infantry) or Equites (cavalry). The Standard of a cavalry unit was emblazoned with...
Roman Cavalry
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Cavalry

Cavalry, although never replacing infantry as the mainstay of the Roman army, could provide useful cover on the flanks of armies, could be used as a shock tactic to cause disruption to enemy infantry formations, and could pursue an enemy...
Themistocles
Imageby Sailko

Themistocles

A marble bust of Athenian statesman and general Themistocles (c. 524 - c. 460 BCE), the victorious commander at the crucial battle of Salamis against Persia. (Museo Ostiense, Ostia)
Ancient Greek Science
Definitionby Cristian Violatti

Ancient Greek Science

The achievements of ancient Greek science were amongst the finest in antiquity. Building on Egyptian and Babylonian knowledge, figures such as Thales of Miletus, Pythagoras, and Aristotle developed ideas in mathematics, astronomy, and logic...
Archimedes
Definitionby Cristian Violatti

Archimedes

Archimedes (287-212 BCE) was a Greek mathematician and mechanical engineer, a pioneer in both fields, many centuries ahead of his contemporaries. Today he is best known for formulating Archimedes' Principle, also known as the law of buoyancy...
Naval Landing
Imageby The Creative Assembly

Naval Landing

This is an artistic 3D impression of how a Roman naval landing may have looked in ancient times.
Cyrus the Great
Definitionby Daan Nijssen

Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II (d. 530 BCE), also known as Cyrus the Great, was the fourth king of Anshan and the first king of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus led several military campaigns against the most powerful kingdoms of the time, including Media, Lydia...
The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire

The battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BCE concluded the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE) and consolidated Rome's power in the Mediterranean, finally resulting in Greece becoming a province of Rome in 146 BCE. This engagement is sometimes...
The Extent of the Roman Empire
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

The Extent of the Roman Empire

Time has seen the rise and fall of a number of great empires - the Babylonian, the Assyrian, the Egyptian, and lastly, the Persian. Regardless of the size or skill of their army or the capabilities of their leaders, all of these empires...