Ten Ancient Rome Facts You Need to Know
Ancient Roman culture affected vast numbers of people across the known world of its time, beginning with the rise of the Roman Republic (509-27 BCE) and throughout the duration of the Roman Empire (27 BCE - c. 476 CE in the West and 1453...
Roman Innovations and Architecture
We have prepared two lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format Open questions adaptable for debates, presentations, and essays Recommended...
Battle of Cannae - Destruction of the Roman Army
Map of the Battle of Cannae showing how Hannibal encircles and defeats the Roman army.
The Wars of the Roses: Consequences & Effects
The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a dynastic conflict where the nobility and monarchs of England intermittently battled for supremacy over a period of four decades. Besides the obvious consequences of Lancastrian and Yorkist kings...
Causes of the Wars of the Roses
The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a series of dynastic conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility of England. The 'wars' were a series of intermittent, often small-scale battles, executions, murders, and failed plots as the political...
Battle of Actium 31 BCE
The positions of Octavian and Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE.
Roman Lamp Handle Ornament
Handle ornament broken from a terracotta lamp. It may commemorate Octavian's victory over Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. Possibly Italian, more probably Egyptian, fabric.
The Crusades: Consequences & Effects
The crusades of the 11th to 15th century CE have become one of the defining events of the Middle Ages in both Europe and the Middle East. The campaigns brought significant consequences wherever they occurred but also pushed changes within...
The Crusades: Causes & Goals
The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by Christian powers in order to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control. There would be eight officially sanctioned crusades between 1095 CE and 1270 CE and many...
The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE
After securing the eastern Mediterranean seaboard and Egypt, Alexander the Great pushed east into Mesopotamia with the intention of bringing Darius to battle. After crossing the Euphrates River unopposed, he marched his army eastward along...