Battle of Adrianople
The Battle of Adrianople on August 9, 378 CE ranks among the worst military defeats in all of Roman history. Its estimated losses of over 10,000 are comparable to Roman defeats at Cannae (216 BCE) and Carrhae (53 BCE). The battle pitted the...
Cniva (also given as Kniva, c. 250 CE to possibly 270 CE) was the king of the Goths who defeated Emperor Decius (249-251 CE) at the Battle of Abritus in 251 CE. Little is known of him other than his campaign in 251 CE, in which he successfully...
The Grand Strategy of Classical Sparta
In ancient Lacedaemon, as in all enduring political communities, there was a symbiotic relationship between the form of government chosen, the way of life that this form of government fostered, and the grand strategy that the community gradually...
Historical Swords From Around the World
This image gallery showcases 28 styles of swords from around the world. This non-exhaustive list highlights different methods of swordmaking from throughout history.
Fall of Rome
Here you will find a 5-minute podcast explaining in simple terms why Rome fell, a short text to fill in and a diagram to complete based on that podcast. The transcript and answer keys are all included.You also have a choice of two wrap-up...
Enemies of Rome in the 3rd Century CE
It has been said that the greatest enemy of Rome was Rome itself, and this is certainly true of the period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE). During this time of almost 50 years, over...
Ancient Greek Literature
Greek literature has influenced not only its Roman neighbors to the west but also countless generations across the European continent. Greek writers are responsible for the introduction of such genres as poetry, tragedy, comedy, and western...
Roman architecture continued the legacy left by Greek architects and the established architectural orders, especially the Corinthian. The Romans were also innovators and they combined new construction techniques and materials with creative...
Roman laws covered all facets of daily life. They were concerned with crime and punishment, land and property ownership, commerce, the maritime and agricultural industries, citizenship, sexuality and prostitution, slavery and manumission...
Battle of Cannae - Destruction of the Roman Army
Map of the Battle of Cannae showing how Hannibal encircles and defeats the Roman army.