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Roman Siege Warfare
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Siege Warfare

In ancient warfare open battles were the preferred mode of meeting the enemy, but sometimes, when defenders took a stand within their well-fortified city or military camp, siege warfare became a necessity, despite its high expense in money...
The Price of Greed: Hannibal's Betrayal by Carthage
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Price of Greed: Hannibal's Betrayal by Carthage

Hannibal Barca (l. 247-183 BCE), the brilliant Carthaginian general of the Second Punic War (218-202 BCE), had the military talent, expertise, and skill to have won the conflict but was denied the resources by his government. The Carthaginian...
Ostracism
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ostracism

Ostracism was a political process used in 5th-century BCE Athens whereby those individuals considered too powerful or dangerous to the city were exiled for 10 years by popular vote. Some of the greatest names in Greek history fell victim...
Epicurus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Epicurus

Epicurus (341 BCE – 270 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher, the founder of the Epicurean school in Athens, who taught that "Pleasure is the principle and end to a happy life." He was a prolific writer, amassing 37 volumes...
Battles of Ancient Greece
Imageby Megistias

Battles of Ancient Greece

A map showing the locations of battles in ancient Greece.
Ancient Persian Gods, Heroes, and Creatures - The Complete List
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Gods, Heroes, and Creatures - The Complete List

The term 'mythology' comes from the Greek mythos (story-of-the-people) and logos (word or speech), meaning the spoken story of a people. Every civilization of the ancient world developed a belief system, which is characterized as 'mythology'...
Twelve Ancient Persian Mythological Creatures
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Ancient Persian Mythological Creatures

The mythology of any civilization reflects its core values, greatest fears, and highest hopes and so it is with the mythology of ancient Persia. The great heroes like Karsasp, Thraetaona, and Rustum express particularly Persian values but...
Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Persia

A vision of the afterlife is articulated by every culture, ancient or modern, in an effort to answer the question of what happens after death. Ancient Persia had the same interest in this as any culture of the past or in the present day and...
Ancient Rome's Legacy
Lessonby Marion Wadowski

Ancient Rome's Legacy

This pack includes a 5-minute podcast describing Rome's major legacies and a 3-2-1 worksheet to start a constructed classroom discussion. The transcript and answer keys are all included.A one-page discussion sheet has been included too. You...
Battles of the Roman Republic
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Battles of the Roman Republic

In this collection we look at some of the most significant battles that shaped the history of the Roman Republic. There were defeats such as at Allia River to the Celts in 390 BCE or at Cannae in 216 BCE when the Carthaginians led by Hannibal...