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Fredrick I Barbarossa Flanked by His Sons
Imageby Unknown Artist

Fredrick I Barbarossa Flanked by His Sons

This image, a miniature from the "Welfenchronik" (History of the Guelphs), which dates to the late twelfth century CE, shows Frederick I Barbarossa (r. 1152-1190 CE), flanked by his sons.
The Report of Wenamun: Text & Commentary
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Report of Wenamun: Text & Commentary

The literature of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE) is justly famous as some of the best the culture ever produced. Great works like The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor and The Tale of Sinuhe stand among the great literary masterpieces...
Ancient Roman Warfare
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Roman Warfare

With a huge reserve of resources in men and equipment and a culture geared for warfare, the Romans were relentless in expanding their borders and putting their neighbours to the sword. The Roman army, with its well-trained, well-equipped...
Enemies of Rome in the 3rd Century CE
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Enemies of Rome in the 3rd Century CE

It has been said that the greatest enemy of Rome was Rome itself, and this is certainly true of the period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE). During this time of almost 50 years, over...
Maximinus Thrax
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Maximinus Thrax

Maximinius Thrax ruled briefly as the Roman emperor from 235 CE to his death in 238 CE. The young Roman Emperor Alexander Severus secured the imperial throne after the assassination of his cousin Elagabalus by the Praetorian Guard in 222...
Valerian
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Valerian

Valerian ruled as emperor of the Roman Empire from 253 CE until his capture in 260 CE. In 253 CE an elderly Roman military commander and experienced former senator was proclaimed emperor by his troops - a very common occurrence at the time...
Philip the Arab
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Philip the Arab

Philip the Arab ruled as emperor of the Roman Empire briefly from 244 CE to 249 CE. In 244 CE Roman emperor Gordian III responded to an uprising in the eastern provinces instigated by the Persian king Shapur. Under the superb leadership of...
Decius
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Decius

Decius was Roman emperor from 249 to 251 CE. In 249 CE Roman emperor Philip the Arab sent senator Decius to be the governor of the troubled provinces of Moesia and Pannonia. Roman legions under the ineffective command of the governor there...
Gallienus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Gallienus

Gallienus was Roman emperor from 253 to 268 CE. Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, the eldest son of Emperor Valerian, was named co-emperor by his father in 253 CE. He was one of many who would claim the throne over the next two decades...
Postumus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Postumus

Postumus was Roman emperor from 260 to 269 CE. Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus was a trusted military commander of Emperor Gallienus (253-268 CE) and governor or Germania Superior and Inferior (Upper and Lower Germany). After the death...
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