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Predynastic Period in Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Predynastic Period in Egypt

The Predynastic Period in Ancient Egypt is the time before recorded history from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic Age and on to the rise of the First Dynasty and is generally recognized as spanning the era from c. 6000-3150 BCE (though physical...
Richard I Marches to Jerusalem
Imageby James William Glass

Richard I Marches to Jerusalem

A 19th century CE painting depicting Richard I (r. 1189-1199 CE) leading the march of the Crusader army to Jerusalem during the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE).
Ancient Egyptian Taxes & the Cattle Count
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Taxes & the Cattle Count

The gods of ancient Egypt freely gave their bounty to the people who worked the land, but this did not exempt those farmers from paying taxes on that bounty to the government. Egypt was a cashless society until the Persian Period (c. 525...
Six Great Heresies of the Middle Ages
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Six Great Heresies of the Middle Ages

The medieval Church established its monopoly over the spiritual life of Europeans in the Early Middle Ages (c. 476-1000) and consolidated that power throughout the High Middle Ages (1000-1300) and Late Middle Ages (1300-1500). Along the way...
Krak Des Chevaliers
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Krak Des Chevaliers

Krak des Chevaliers (also spelt Cracs des Chevaliers, and known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad) is a castle in Syria originally built for the Emir of Aleppo in 1031 CE but acquired and extensively rebuilt by the Knights Hospitaller in 1144 CE...
Map of the Crusader States, 1229-1240 CE
Imageby Ziegelbrenner

Map of the Crusader States, 1229-1240 CE

A map indicating the territories controlled by the Crusader States or Latin East from 1229 CE to 1240 CE after the Sixth Crusade (1227-1229 CE)
Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE
Imageby Courtesy of Medieval Warfare Magazine / Karwansaray Publishers

Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE

Illustration of the Siege of Acre (1189-91 CE) by Rocío Espin. Courtesy of Medieval Warfare Magazine / Karwansaray Publishers.
The Gifts of Isis: Women's Status in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Gifts of Isis: Women's Status in Ancient Egypt

A story on a papyrus dating from the 2nd century CE relates that the goddess Isis, bestowing gifts on humanity, gave as much power and honor to women as she did to men. This tale reflects the high status women enjoyed in ancient Egypt...
Imhotep
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Imhotep

Imhotep (Greek name, Imouthes, c. 2667-2600 BCE) was an Egyptian polymath (a person expert in many areas of learning) best known as the architect of King Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara. His name means "He Who Comes in Peace" and he is the...
First Dynasty of Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

First Dynasty of Egypt

The kings of the First Dynasty of Egypt (c. 3150 - c. 2890 BCE) all worked toward the same ends: increasing trade, expansion of the kingdom through military campaigns, engaging in building projects (such as monuments, tombs, and temples...
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