The Theodosian Walls are the fortifications of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, which were first built during the reign of Theodosius II (408-450 CE). Sometimes known as the Theodosian Long Walls, they built upon and extended...
Thessaly and the Duchy of Neopatras
Thessaly was an independent state in medieval Greece from 1267 or 1268 to 1394 CE, first as the Greek-ruled Thessaly and later as the Catalan and Latin-ruled Duchy of Neopatras. Under its sebastokrators, Thessaly was a thorn in the side of...
Pope Innocent III & the Albigensian Crusade
A medieval manuscript illustration showing Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) and the crusaders of the Albigensian Crusade in southern France (1209-1229 CE). (Chronicles of Saint-Denis, British Library, London)
This print depicts the Children's Crusade of 1212 CE. From a wood cut by Dutch monogrammist LIW, ca 1550-1580 CE. (Metropolitan Museum, New York)
Children's Crusade, 1212 CE
A 19th century CE engraving by Gustave Doré of the Children's Crusade of 1212 CE.
Louis IX Departing for the Seventh Crusade
A 14th century CE illustration of Louis IX of France (r. 1226-1270 CE) departing Aigues Mortes for Egypt on the Seventh Crusade (1248-1254 CE).
Louis IX Captured During the Seventh Crusade
A 19th century CE illustration by Gustav Doré showing the French king Louis IX (r. 1226-1270 CE) and his capture by the army of the Ayyubid Empire during the Seventh Crusade (1248-1254 CE).
Latin Surrender to Saladin, 1187 CE
A painting depicting the surrender of the Latin ruler Guy de Lusignan to Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE), after the battle of Hattin in 1187 CE. The loss and subsequent capture of Jerusalem by Saladin would spark...
Saladin and Guy of Lusignan
A 17th century CE painting by Jan Lievens of Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE) and the French nobleman and king of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Guy of Lusignan (r. 1186-1192 CE), enemies during the siege of Acre from 1189-1191...
Ancient Egyptian Mythology
Egyptian mythology was the belief structure and underlying form of ancient Egyptian culture from at least c. 4000 BCE (as evidenced by burial practices and tomb paintings) to 30 BCE with the death of Cleopatra VII, the last ruler of the Ptolemaic...