Map of The Latin East, 1190 CE
A map of the Middle East showing the Crusader-held Latin East states at the time of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE).
Second Crusade Battle Scene
A battle scene of the Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE). From a 14th century CE illustrated manuscript of William of Tyre's history of the Crusade. (French National Library, Paris)
Battle of Nicopolis
The Battle of Nicopolis in September 1396 CE, also known as the Nicopolis Crusade, was an attempt by French, Hungarian, and other European allies to curb the threat of the Ottoman Turks as they pressed ever westwards into Europe. Nicopolis...
Ancient Egyptian Government
The government of ancient Egypt was a theocratic monarchy as the king ruled by a mandate from the gods, initially was seen as an intermediary between human beings and the divine, and was supposed to represent the gods' will through the laws...
Ancient Egyptian Warfare
The Narmer Palette, an ancient Egyptian ceremonial engraving, depicts the great king Narmer (c. 3150 BCE) conquering his enemies with the support and approval of his gods. This piece, dating from c. 3200-3000 BCE, was initially thought to...
The Siege of Antioch, 1097-98 CE
The siege of Antioch in 1097-1098 CE occurred during the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE) when the western Crusader knights were on their way to retake Jerusalem. The great metropolis of Antioch in northern Syria was heavily fortified, and it...
Matilda of Tuscany
Matilda of Canossa (c. 1046-1115), the Countess of Tuscany (r. 1055-1115) and Vice-Queen of Italy (r. 1111-1115), was the final head of the noble House of Canossa following the deaths of her father in 1052 and her elder brother in 1055. One...
Map of the First Crusade Routes
"This map shows the main routes taken by those who joined the First Crusade. The appeal was made by Pope Urban II in November 1095 CE but crusaders did not set out until the following summer. One route went through Hungary crossing the Byzantine...
The Barracks Emperors
The “Barracks Emperors” is a term coined by later historians referring to the Roman emperors who were chosen and supported by the army during the period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284...
Early Dynastic Period In Egypt
The Early Dynastic Period in Egypt (c. 3150 - c. 2613 BCE) is the beginning of the historical era of the country during which the regions of Upper Egypt (south) and Lower Egypt (north) were united as one country under a centralized government...