The armies of Carthage permitted the city to forge the most powerful empire in the western Mediterranean from the 6th to 3rd centuries BCE. Although by tradition a seafaring nation with a powerful navy, Carthage, by necessity, had to employ...
Carthaginian Naval Warfare
The Carthaginians were famed in antiquity for their seafaring skills and innovation in ship design. The empire their navy protected stretched from Sicily to the Atlantic coast of Africa. Able to match the tyrants of Sicily and the Hellenistic...
The Byzantine Empire, often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium, existed from 330 to 1453. With its capital founded at Constantinople by Constantine I (r. 306-337), the Empire varied in size over the centuries, at one time...
Battle of Marj Ayyun, 1179 CE
The Battle of Marj Ayyun was a military confrontation fought near the Litani River (modern-day Lebanon) in June 1179 CE between the Christian Crusaders under the leadership of the king of Jerusalem Baldwin IV (r. 1174-1185 CE) and the Muslim...
The Battle of Hattin, 1187 CE
An illustration from the 13th century CE Chronica majora by Michael Paris showing a scene from the Battle of Hattin in 1187 CE. On the left is the Muslim leader Saladin who faces and takes from King Guy of Jerusalem the True Cross. (Corpus...
Second Dynasty of Egypt
The Second Dynasty of Egypt (c. 2890 - c. 2670 BCE) rose from the turmoil which ended the first and was marked by uprisings (or, at least, internal difficulties) throughout. The precise cause of this civil unrest is unclear as sources for...
A painting of Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE) who shocked the western world by defeating a western army at the Battle of Hattin and then capturing Jerusalem in 1187 CE. (Painting by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, c. 1525-1605...
Jerusalem Recaptured by Saladin
This print from 1683 CE depicts the recapture of Jerusalem in 1187 CE by Saladin (r. 1174-1193 CE) . Etching on paper. Measures 169 mm x 292 mm. (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam)
The Egyptian Empire rose during the period of the New Kingdom (c. 1570- c. 1069 BCE), when the country reached its height of wealth, international prestige, and military might. The empire stretched from modern-day Syria in the north to modern-day...
Richard I Marches to Jerusalem
A 19th century CE painting depicting Richard I (r. 1189-1199 CE) leading the march of the Crusader army to Jerusalem during the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE).