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First Intermediate Period of Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

First Intermediate Period of Egypt

The First Intermediate Period of Egypt (2181-2040 BCE) is the era which followed the Old Kingdom (c. 2613-2181 BCE) and preceded the Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) periods of Egyptian history. The name was given to the era by 19th-century...
Dogs & Their Collars in the Age of Enlightenment
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Dogs & Their Collars in the Age of Enlightenment

In medieval and Renaissance Europe, dogs were considered little more than 'machines' which performed certain tasks, such as guarding a home or tracking game, but this view changed significantly during the Age of Enlightenment (also known...
Mycenaean Pottery
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Mycenaean Pottery

The pottery of the Mycenaean civilization (1550-1050 BCE), although heavily influenced by the earlier Minoans based on Crete, nevertheless, added new pottery shapes to the existing range and achieved its own distinctive decorative style which...
Migration Age
Definitionby Jan van der Crabben

Migration Age

The Migration Period, also called the Barbarian Invasions or German: Völkerwanderung (wandering of the peoples), was a period of human migration that occurred roughly between 300 to 700 CE in Europe, marking the transition from Late Antiquity...
Riace Bronzes
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Riace Bronzes

The Riace Bronzes, also known as the Riace Warriors, are a pair of bronze statues most likely sculpted in Greece in the mid-5th century BCE and rescued from the Ionian Sea near Riace Marina, Italy in 1972 CE. Slightly larger than life-size...
Bronze Age Gold Bowl, 1100 BCE
Imageby Swiss National Museum

Bronze Age Gold Bowl, 1100 BCE

Bowl, gold. c. 1100 BCE. Zurich-Altstetten. Canton of Zurich. With images of stags and does grazing under round suns and crescent moons, this heavy vessel made of pure gold depicts both heaven and earth. It was buried by a farming community...
Bronze Age Gold Bowl Detail, 1100 BCE
Imageby Swiss National Museum

Bronze Age Gold Bowl Detail, 1100 BCE

Bowl, gold. c. 1100 BCE. Zurich-Altstetten. Canton of Zurich. With images of stags and does grazing under round suns and crescent moons, this heavy vessel made of pure gold depicts both heaven and earth. It was buried by a farming community...
Minoan Frescoes
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Minoan Frescoes

Frescoes are the source of some of the most striking imagery handed down to us from the Minoan civilization of Bronze Age Crete (2000-1500 BCE). Further, without written records, they are often the only source, along with decorated pottery...
The Gilded Age Estates of Staatsburg, New York
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Gilded Age Estates of Staatsburg, New York

The great estates of the Gilded Age were more than lavish displays of wealth for the American aristocracy c. 1870-1917, they supported the economy of the local communities and encouraged development. As they declined, many of the surrounding...
Pirate Punishments in the Golden Age of Piracy
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Pirate Punishments in the Golden Age of Piracy

Pirates in the Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1730) both dished out and received a wide range of imaginative punishments. Victims of piracy endured torture, floggings, and ceremonies of humiliation, but when brought to justice, the pirates were...