The Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE) was a military campaign organised by the Pope and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia which had fallen in 1144 CE to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. Despite an army of 60,000 and the presence...
Map of The Latin East, 1190 CE
A map of the Middle East showing the Crusader-held Latin East states at the time of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE).
The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204 CE) was called by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) to retake Jerusalem from its current Muslim overlords. However, in a bizarre combination of cock-ups, financial constraints, and Venetian trading ambitions...
Kingdom of Jerusalem
The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a state created in 1099 CE by Crusaders and western settlers after the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE). With Jerusalem as its capital, the kingdom was the most important of the four Crusader States in the Middle...
Fourth Crusader Invasion of Egypt, 1168-1169 CE
A map depicting the Fourth Crusader Invasion of Egypt from 1168 - 1169 CE. This invasion led to the Zengid conquest of Egypt under the leadership of Shirkuh and Saladin (1137 - 1193 CE).
The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE) was called by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) with the objective, like previous crusades, of recapturing Jerusalem from Muslim control; only this time the strategy was to weaken the enemy by first attacking...
Surrender of Jerusalem (1187 CE)
Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, c. 1490 CE.
Tamar was the queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213 CE. She is considered one of the greatest of medieval Georgia's monarchs, and she presided over its greatest territorial expansion, taking advantage of the decline of other major powers in...
Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE
Illustration of the Siege of Acre (1189-91 CE) by Rocío Espin. Courtesy of Medieval Warfare Magazine / Karwansaray Publishers.
A medieval Teutonic Knight was a member of the Catholic military Deutscher Orden or Teutonic Order, officially founded in March 1198 CE. The first mission of the Teutonic knights was to help retake Jerusalem from the Arabs in the Third Crusade...