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Trajan's Market
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Trajan's Market

Trajan's Market is the name given in the early 20th century CE to a complex of buildings in the imperial fora of Rome constructed in 107-110 CE during the reign of Trajan. The complex included a covered market, small shop fronts and a residential...
Mausoleum of Augustus
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Mausoleum of Augustus

The Mausoleum of Augustus was actually one of the first of many large building projects undertaken in the reign of Rome's first emperor. When the Mausoleum was completed in 28 BCE, it was easily the biggest tomb in the Roman world, a record...
Masada
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Masada

Masada (“fortress” in Hebrew) is a mountain complex in Israel in the Judean desert that overlooks the Dead Sea. It is famous for the last stand of the Zealots (and Sicarii) in the Jewish Revolt against Rome (66-73 CE). Masada...
Arch of Janus
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Arch of Janus

The Arch of Janus, erected in the 4th century CE, stands in the forum Boarium of Rome and was most probably set up as a boundary-marker rather than a commemorative triumphal arch. The four-way marble arch stands over the Cloaca Maxima or...
Tarquinia
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Tarquinia

Tarquinia (Etruscan name: Tarch'na or Tarch, Roman name: Tarquinii) is a town located on the western coast of central Italy which was an important Etruscan and then Roman settlement. It is famous today as the site of around 200 Etruscan tombs...
Shapur I
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Shapur I

Shapur I (r. 240-270 CE) is considered one of the greatest kings of the Sassanian Empire for expanding his realm, his policy of religious tolerance, building projects, and committing the Zoroastrian scriptures (Avesta) to writing. He was...
The Rise of Cities in the Ancient Mediterranean
Articleby Oxford University Press

The Rise of Cities in the Ancient Mediterranean

The history of the ancient world has always been told as a history of cities, from Homer's epic poems about events just before and just after the sack of Troy, through the prose histories of wars between Athens and Sparta, Rome and Carthage...
Mavia
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Mavia

Mavia (r. c. 375-c. 425 CE) was a warrior-queen of the semi-nomadic Tanukhid Arab tribe of Syria and Jordan who led a successful insurrection against Rome in 378 CE. She is also known as Maowiva, Mu`awiya, Mauia, Mania, and Mawiyya. Her control...
Mark Antony
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Mark Antony

Marcus Antonius (l. 83-30 BCE, known popularly as Mark Antony) was a Roman general and statesman best known for his love affair with Cleopatra VII (l. c.69-30 BCE) of Egypt. As Julius Caesar's friend and right-hand man, he gave the funeral...
Augustus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Augustus

Augustus Caesar (27 BCE - 14 CE) was the name of the first and, by most accounts, greatest Roman emperor. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus on 23 September 63 BCE. Octavian was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, and...
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