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Sulla's Reforms as Dictator
Articleby Jesse Sifuentes

Sulla's Reforms as Dictator

Lucius Cornelius Sulla (l. 138 - 78 BCE) enacted his constitutional reforms (81 BCE) as dictator to strengthen the Roman Senate's power. Sulla was born in a very turbulent era of Rome's history, which has often been described as the beginning...
Roman Ballista
Imageby Vissarion

Roman Ballista

The ballista was a Roman artillery weapon which used torsion to propel bolts or stones over several hundred metres. They were in use from the 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE.
Roman Coin with Soldiers
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Roman Coin with Soldiers

A Roman coin depicting two standing soldiers. Denarius of Caius Servilius, 1st century BCE. (Archaeological Museum, Tarragona, Spain)
Roman Expeditions in Sub-Saharan Africa
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Roman Expeditions in Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa was explored by Roman expeditions between 19 BCE - 90 CE, most likely in an effort to locate the sources of valuable trade goods and establish routes to bring them to the seaports on the coast of North Africa, thereby minimizing...
De Officiis
Definitionby João Dickmann

De Officiis

De Officiis is a treatise written by Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 – 43 BCE), Roman statesman and orator, in the form of a letter to his son just after the death of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. Strongly influenced by stoicism, De Officiis...
Roman Legionary Kit
Imageby Carole Raddato

Roman Legionary Kit

A reconstruction of a Roman legionary's kit from the 1st century CE. (Museum und Park Kalkriese, Germany)
Relief with Roman Signifer
Imageby Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Relief with Roman Signifer

A fragment of a relief depicting a Roman standard-bearer (signifer). The soldier is depicted wearing a lion-skin cap over a highly decorated Attic style helmet. Marble. 1st or 2nd Century CE, Julio-Claudian or Trajanic dynasties. 35 cm (13.8...
Twelve Tables
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Twelve Tables

The Twelve Tables (aka Law of the Twelve Tables) was a set of laws inscribed on 12 bronze tablets created in ancient Rome in 451 and 450 BCE. They were the beginning of a new approach to laws which were now passed by government and written...
Roman Household Spirits: Manes, Panes and Lares
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Roman Household Spirits: Manes, Panes and Lares

To the ancient Romans, everything was imbued with a divine spirit (numen, plural: numina) which gave it life. Even supposedly inanimate objects like rocks and trees possessed a numen, a belief which no doubt grew out of the early religious...
Roman Cavalryman Model
Imageby Carole Raddato

Roman Cavalryman Model

A reconstruction of a cavalryman and horse wearing pieces of display armour typical of the hippika gymnasia. (Museum het Valkhof, Nijmegen, Netherlands)
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