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Legio II Augusta
Definitionby James Lloyd

Legio II Augusta

Legio II Augusta was a legion of the Roman army that, throughout its centuries-long history, had fought in the Cantabrian Wars of 29-19 BCE, Germanicus' German campaigns in 9 CE, the invasion of Britain in 43 CE, and Septimus Severus' Scottish...
Carthage
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Carthage

Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the...
Top 5 Roman Sites in Southern Spain
Articleby Carole Raddato

Top 5 Roman Sites in Southern Spain

Almost 700 years of continuous Roman occupation have left impressive traces in the Spanish landscape. Spain was then known as 'Hispania' and is now a fascinating location for the archaeological traveller. The Spanish provinces were...
Roman Egypt
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Egypt

The rich lands of Egypt became the property of Rome after the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BCE, which spelled the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty that had ruled Egypt since the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. After the murder of Gaius...
The Battle of Abritus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Abritus

The Battle of Abritus was an engagement fought between the armies of Rome under the emperor Decius (249-251 CE) and a coalition of Goths under the leadership of Cniva (c. 250 - c. 270 CE) in 251 CE resulting in a victory for Cniva and the...
Caracalla
Definitionby Patrick Hurley

Caracalla

Caracalla was Roman emperor from 211 to 217 CE. Born Lucius Septimius Bassianus, son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, he became co-ruler with his father in 198 CE and sole ruler after the death of his father in 211 CE and of his brother...
Roman Senate
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Senate

The Roman Senate functioned as an advisory body to Rome's magistrates and was composed of the city's most experienced public servants and society's elite. Its decisions carried great weight, even if these were not always converted into laws...
Sulla
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Sulla

Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138-78 BCE) was a ruthless military commander, who first distinguished himself in the Numidian War under the command of Gaius Marius. His relationship with Marius soured during the conflicts that would follow and lead...
Authority in Ancient Rome: Auctoritas, Potestas, Imperium, and the Paterfamilias
Articleby Jesse Sifuentes

Authority in Ancient Rome: Auctoritas, Potestas, Imperium, and the Paterfamilias

Authority in ancient Rome was complex, and as one can expect from Rome, full of tradition, myth, and awareness of their own storied history. Perhaps the ultimate authority was imperium, the power to command the Roman army. Potestas was legal...
Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare

In the search for ever more impressive and lethal weapons to shock the enemy and bring total victory the armies of ancient Greece, Carthage, and even sometimes Rome turned to the elephant. Huge, exotic, and frightening the life out of an...
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