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Roman Citizenship
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Citizenship

Citizenship is and always has been a valued possession of any individual. When one studies the majority of ancient empires one finds that the concept of citizenship, in any form, was non-existent. The people in these societies did not and...
Gothic Cathedrals: Architecture & Divine Light
Articleby Hillary Smith

Gothic Cathedrals: Architecture & Divine Light

Gothic cathedrals are some of the most recognizable and magnificent architectural feats. With soaring towers and softly filtered light streaming through stained glass windows, everything about the Gothic cathedral is transportive and ethereal...
A Roman Trail in the Moselle Valley
Articleby Carole Raddato

A Roman Trail in the Moselle Valley

The Moselle Valley is Germany's oldest winegrowing region. The Romans brought viticulture to this area and planted vines along the Moselle River 2000 years ago. After settling the region c. 50 BCE and establishing the city of Trier (Augusta...
A Visual Glossary of Hindu Architecture
Articleby Mark Cartwright

A Visual Glossary of Hindu Architecture

Adisthana - the decorative raised platform on which a temple is built. Alasa kanya - a decorative female figure. Amalaka - a large fluted stone disc placed on top of a Nagara tower taking its form from the amla or myrobalan...
The Arch of Titus, Rome
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Arch of Titus, Rome

The Arch of Titus is a Roman Triumphal Arch which was erected by Domitian in c. 81 CE at the foot of the Palatine hill on the Via Sacra in the Forum Romanum, Rome. It commemorates the victories of his father Vespasian and brother Titus in...
Top 10 Archaeological Sites in Provence
Articleby Carole Raddato

Top 10 Archaeological Sites in Provence

Provence has inherited a rich legacy from antiquity, boasting some of the best-preserved Roman ruins in Europe. In the 2nd century BCE, the Romans began their conquest of the region and called it “Provincia Romana,” giving us the region's...
Top 5 Roman Sites in Southern Spain
Articleby Carole Raddato

Top 5 Roman Sites in Southern Spain

Almost 700 years of continuous Roman occupation have left impressive traces in the Spanish landscape. Spain was then known as 'Hispania' and is now a fascinating location for the archaeological traveller. The Spanish provinces were...
Western Roman Empire
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Western Roman Empire

The Western Roman Empire is the modern-day term for the western half of the Roman Empire after it was divided in two by the emperor Diocletian (r. 284-305 CE) in c. 285/286 CE. The Romans themselves did not use this term. At its height (c...
Roman Sculpture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Sculpture

Roman sculpture blended the idealised perfection of Classical Greek sculpture with a greater aspiration for realism. It also absorbed artistic preferences and styles from the East to create images in stone and bronze which rank among the...
Roman Literature
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Literature

The Roman Empire and its predecessor the Roman Republic produced an abundance of celebrated literature; poetry, comedies, dramas, histories, and philosophical tracts; the Romans avoided tragedies. Much of it survives to this day. However...