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Roman Tunnels
Articleby Victor Labate

Roman Tunnels

The first tunnels in the Mediterranean were built to transport water from distant springs and mountains to arid areas and cities. They also ensured the constant supply of water when cities were under siege. For example, the 533 m (583 yards...
The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire

The battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BCE concluded the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE) and consolidated Rome's power in the Mediterranean, finally resulting in Greece becoming a province of Rome in 146 BCE. This engagement is sometimes...
Boxing in the Roman Empire
Articleby Matthew Vivonia

Boxing in the Roman Empire

Boxing is one of the oldest sports in the world that is still practiced today. Included in the original athletic contests of the Olympic Games, pugilism or boxing was well known and loved by the ancient Greeks and Romans. The style used in...
Decebalus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Decebalus

Decebalus (c. 87-106 CE) was the king of Dacia (roughly modern-day Romania and Moldova) who fought two wars with Rome under Trajan (in 101-102 CE and 105-106 CE) in defense of his kingdom. Trajan (r. 98-117 CE) was renewing a conflict...
Roman Citizenship - Text & Comparing Data
Worksheet/Activityby Marion Wadowski

Roman Citizenship - Text & Comparing Data

This activity has been designed to fit a 20-30-minute slot for your class and is suitable for both online and classroom teaching. Students have to complete a table to compare and contrast citizenship in the Early Republic and the Empire...
Sicilian Temples (Greek Metrology)
Articleby Denitsa Dzhigova

Sicilian Temples (Greek Metrology)

Characteristics of Sicilian Archaic Temples The large dimensions of the components, the presence of a propteron, an adyton, and other specific elements of the plan and elevation speak for an originally very autonomous development of...
Konarak Sun Temple
Definitionby Dr Avantika Lal

Konarak Sun Temple

The Konark or Konarak Sun temple is dedicated to the Hindu sun god Surya, and, conceived as a giant stone chariot with 12 wheels, it is the most famous of the few sun temples built in India. It is located about 35 km northeast of the city...
Ancient Rome
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Rome

According to legend, Ancient Rome was founded by the two brothers, and demigods, Romulus and Remus, on 21 April 753 BCE. The legend claims that in an argument over who would rule the city (or, in another version, where the city would be located...
Punic Wars
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Punic Wars

The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought between the forces of ancient Carthage and Rome between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. The name Punic comes from the word Phoenician (Phoinix in the Greek, Poenus from Punicus in Latin) as applied to...
Love, Sex, & Marriage in Ancient Rome
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Love, Sex, & Marriage in Ancient Rome

Love, sex, and marriage in ancient Rome were defined by the patriarchy. The head of the household was the father (the pater familias) who had complete control over the lives of his wife, children, and slaves. This paradigm was justified...
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