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A Visitor's Guide to Rome's Frontier in Germany
Articleby Carole Raddato

A Visitor's Guide to Rome's Frontier in Germany

In the 2nd century CE, the Roman Empire stretched from Scotland in northern Europe to the deserts of southern Egypt, encompassing the entirety of the Mediterranean basin. Beyond that lay its borders. Where there was no natural frontier such...
Libraries in the Ancient World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Libraries in the Ancient World

Libraries were a feature of larger cities across the ancient world with famous examples being those at Alexandria, Athens, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Nineveh. Rarely ever lending libraries, they were typically designed for visiting scholars...
Roman Legionary
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Legionary

The Roman legionary was a well-trained and disciplined foot soldier, fighting as part of a professional well-organized unit, the legion (Latin: legio), established by the Marian Reforms. While major tactical changes appeared during the final...
The Hippodrome of Constantinople
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Hippodrome of Constantinople

The Hippodrome of Constantinople was an arena used for chariot racing throughout the Byzantine period. First built during the reign of Roman emperor Septimius Severus in the early 3rd century CE, the structure was made more grandiose by emperor...
Roman Gaul
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Gaul

Roman Gaul is an umbrella term for several Roman provinces in western Europe: Cisalpine Gaul or Gallia Cisalpina, comprised a territory situated in the northernmost part of the Italian peninsula ranging from the Apennines in the west northward...
Roman Wall Painting
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Roman Wall Painting

The interiors of Roman buildings of all description were very frequently sumptuously decorated using bold colours and designs. Wall paintings, fresco and the use of stucco to create relief effects were all commonly used by the 1st century...
Ancient Rome Government and Society
Lesson Packby Marion Wadowski

Ancient Rome Government and Society

We have prepared five lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys to introduce government and social structure in Ancient Rome to your students. You will need minimal preparation to just roll with it in your...
Etruscan Civilization
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Civilization

The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE. The culture was renowned in antiquity for its rich mineral resources and as a major Mediterranean trading power. Much of its culture and even history...
Triumphal Arch
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Triumphal Arch

The triumphal arch was a type of Roman architectural monument built all over the empire to commemorate military triumphs and other significant events such as the accession of a new emperor. Celebrated surviving examples of triumphal arches...
Roman Daily Life
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Daily Life

From the early days of the Roman Republic through the volatile reigns of such ignoble emperors as Caligula, Nero, and Commodus, the Roman Empire continued to expand, stretching its borders to encompass the entire Mediterranean Sea as well...