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Battle of Salamis, 480 BCE
Imageby Dept. of History, US Military Academy

Battle of Salamis, 480 BCE

The distribution of the respective fleets of the Greek allied states (blue) against the Persian forces of Xerxes (red), 480 BCE. The Greeks would outmanoeuvre the Persians in the shallow waters of the straights and win a victory which would...
Cortés & the Fall of the Aztec Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Cortés & the Fall of the Aztec Empire

The Aztec empire flourished between c. 1345 and 1521 CE and dominated ancient Mesoamerica. This young and warlike nation was highly successful in spreading its reach and gaining fabulous wealth, but then all too quickly came the strange visitors...
Carolingian Dynasty
Definitionby Michael Griffith

Carolingian Dynasty

The Carolingian Dynasty (751-887) was a family of Frankish nobles who ruled Francia and its successor kingdoms in Western and Central Europe during the Early Middle Ages. The dynasty expanded from Francia as far as modern Italy, Spain, and...
The Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome

The Arch of Septimius Severus, erected in 203 CE, stands in Rome and commemorates the Roman victories over the Parthians in the final decade of the 2nd century CE. The triple triumphal arch was one of the most richly decorated of its type...
Roman Tunnels
Articleby Victor Labate

Roman Tunnels

The first tunnels in the Mediterranean were built to transport water from distant springs and mountains to arid areas and cities. They also ensured the constant supply of water when cities were under siege. For example, the 533 m (583 yards...
The Isaurians and the End of Germanic Influence in Byzantium
Articleby Michael Goodyear

The Isaurians and the End of Germanic Influence in Byzantium

Germanic influence reigned in the Roman Empire from the end of the 4th century CE through the 5th. Germanic individuals took important posts in the government and the military, and Germanic tribes penetrated ever further into lands that had...
Pantheon
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Pantheon

The Pantheon (Latin: pantheum) is the best-preserved building from ancient Rome and was completed in c. 125 CE. Its magnificent concrete dome is a lasting testimony to the genius of Roman architects and as the building stands virtually intact...
The Architecture of Ancient Rome
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

The Architecture of Ancient Rome

Roman architecture was nothing if not eclectic. From ingenious underfloor heating to gravity-defying arches, the Romans added to the Classical repertoire such grandiose structures as the triumphal arch, basilica, amphitheatre, and city tower...
Carthaginian Ship's Ram
Imageby Sb2s3

Carthaginian Ship's Ram

A bronze ram from the prow of a Carthaginian warship. Found off the Aegadian Islands (near Sicily) and dating to the First Punic War (264 and 241 BCE). A Punic inscription dedicates the ram to the Phoenician and Punic god Baal.
Tribune
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Tribune

Tribune was a title of various offices in ancient Rome, the two most important of which were the tribuni plebis and tribuni militum. The military tribunes were responsible for many administrative and logistics duties, and could lead a section...
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