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Ancient Chinese Warfare
Videoby Documentary Warehouse

Ancient Chinese Warfare

A documentary on warfare in ancient China.
Battle of Thermopylae
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Thermopylae

Thermopylae is a mountain pass near the sea in northern Greece which was the site of several battles in antiquity, the most famous being that between Persians and Greeks in August 480 BCE. Despite being greatly inferior in numbers, the Greeks...
Legions of Britain
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Legions of Britain

After the Roman emperor Claudius (r. 41-54 CE) successfully conquered Britain in 43 CE, four legions were left there to maintain the peace: XIV Gemina, II Augusta, IX Hispana, and XX Valeria Victrix. However, by the end of the decade, XIV...
Weapons in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Weapons in Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptian military is often imagined in modern films and other media as a heavily armed and disciplined fighting force equipped with powerful weapons. This depiction, however, is only true of the Egyptian army of the New Kingdom...
Roman Household Spirits: Manes, Panes and Lares
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Roman Household Spirits: Manes, Panes and Lares

To the ancient Romans, everything was imbued with a divine spirit (numen, plural: numina) which gave it life. Even supposedly inanimate objects like rocks and trees possessed a numen, a belief which no doubt grew out of the early religious...
Battle of the Granicus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Battle of the Granicus

The Battle of the Granicus in May 334 BCE was Alexander the Great's (356-323 BCE) first major victory against the forces of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexander had crossed the Hellespont with his combined Macedonian and Greek forces and stepped...
Praetorian Guard
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Praetorian Guard

The Praetorian Guard (cohortes praetoriae) was, in the Roman Republic, a commander's personal bodyguard and then, in the imperial period, an elite force assigned to protect the emperor and Rome. Over the years, the guard would become a dangerous...
Valentine's Day
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Valentine's Day

Saint Valentine’s Day, or simply Valentine’s Day, is celebrated on the 14th of February, almost internationally but primarily in western societies. It is a commemorative Christian feast for some but a secular occasion for others who see it...
Reconstruction of the Rampart of the Circumvallation, Alesia
Imageby Carole Raddato

Reconstruction of the Rampart of the Circumvallation, Alesia

Reconstruction of the rampart of the circumvallation at Alesia (France). The rampart consisted of a terrace (agger) surmounted by a parapet and towers. The terrace was built up with packed earth extracted from trenches. It was protected...
Fritigern
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Fritigern

Fritigern (also Fritigernus, died c. 380 CE) was a Visigothic king best known as the victor of the decisive Battle of Adrianople in 378 CE, which decimated the Roman army and haunted Roman military commanders for decades afterwards. He was...
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