Roman sculpture blended the idealised perfection of Classical Greek sculpture with a greater aspiration for realism. It also absorbed artistic preferences and styles from the East to create images in stone and bronze which rank among the...
Great Military Commanders from Antiquity
In antiquity, certain military commanders were so formidable on the battlefield that they were responsible for the rise and fall of civilizations. Epaminondas saw off mighty Sparta and almost single-handedly gave Greek Thebes its one and...
Battle of Carrhae, 53 BCE
The Battle of Carrhae in 53 BCE was one of the greatest military catastrophes in all of Roman history when a hero of the Spartacus campaign, Marcus Licinius Crassus (115-53 BCE), initiated an unprovoked invasion of Parthian territory (modern...
Cniva (also given as Kniva, c. 250 CE to possibly 270 CE) was the king of the Goths who defeated Emperor Decius (249-251 CE) at the Battle of Abritus in 251 CE. Little is known of him other than his campaign in 251 CE, in which he successfully...
The Marian Reforms were a set of the reforms introduced to the Roman army in the late 2nd century BCE by Roman general and politician Gaius Marius (157-86 BCE). Through these reforms, the Roman army was transformed from a semi-professional...
Roman medicine was greatly influenced by earlier Greek medicine and literature but would also make its own unique contribution to the history of medicine through the work of such famous experts as Galen and Celsus. Whilst there were professional...
Roman Naval Attack on Carthage
An artist's impression of what the Roman naval attack on Carthage may have looked like during the Third Punic War, 149-146 BCE.
Attila the Hun
Attila the Hun (r. 434-453 CE) was the leader of the ancient nomadic people known as the Huns and ruler of the Hunnic Empire, which he established. His name means "Little Father" and, according to some historians, may not have been...
Battle of Actium
The Battle of Actium (2 September 31 BCE, fought in the Ionian Sea off Actium, Greece) was the decisive engagement of the civil war fought between Octavian Caesar (l. 63-14 CE, later known as Augustus, r. 27 BCE - 14 CE) and the forces of...
Roman Innovations and Architecture
We have prepared two lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format Open questions adaptable for debates, presentations, and essays Recommended...