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Cicero
Definitionby James Lloyd

Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman orator, statesman, and writer. He was born on 6 January 106 BCE at either Arpinum or Sora, 70 miles south-east of Rome, in the Volscian mountains. His father was an affluent eques, and the family was distantly...
The Battle of Zama - The Beginning of Roman Conquest
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Zama - The Beginning of Roman Conquest

The Battle of Zama (202 BCE) was the final engagement of the Second Punic War (218-202 BCE) at which Hannibal Barca of Carthage (l. 247-183 BCE) was defeated by Scipio Africanus of Rome (l. 236-183 BCE) ending the conflict in Rome's favor...
Second Triumvirate
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Second Triumvirate

The Second Triumvirate was a political association of convenience between three of Rome's most powerful figures: Mark Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian in the 1st century BCE. Following the assassination of Julius Caesar the three vowed revenge...
Roman Coinage
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Coinage

Roman coins were first produced in the late 4th century BCE in Italy and continued to be minted for another eight centuries across the empire. Denominations and values more or less constantly changed but certain types such as the sestertii...
Patrician
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Patrician

The 4th century BCE Greek philosopher Aristotle once wrote in his essay Politics, “If liberty and equality…are chiefly to be found in democracy, they will be best attained when all persons alike share in the government to the...
Enemies of Rome in the 3rd Century CE
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Enemies of Rome in the 3rd Century CE

It has been said that the greatest enemy of Rome was Rome itself, and this is certainly true of the period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE). During this time of almost 50 years, over...
Arminius
Definitionby Ludwig Heinrich Dyck

Arminius

The Cherusci noble Arminius (c. 18 BCE - 19 CE) led the resistance to Roman conquest of Germania during the years 9-16 CE. Likely raised as a child hostage in Rome, Arminius gained command of a German auxiliary cohort in the Roman army. Posted...
Roman Daily Life
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Daily Life

From the early days of the Roman Republic through the volatile reigns of such ignoble emperors as Caligula, Nero, and Commodus, the Roman Empire continued to expand, stretching its borders to encompass the entire Mediterranean Sea as well...
Exploring Classical Pula, Croatia
Articleby Carole Raddato

Exploring Classical Pula, Croatia

Located at the southern tip of the Istrian peninsula, Croatia’s westernmost outcrop, Pula is a town of extraordinary beauty with a 3000-year history. This important Istrian port boasts a rich and varied cultural heritage and has some of the...
Legions of the Parthian Wars
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Legions of the Parthian Wars

Parthia had always been a thorn in the side of the Roman Empire. The initial campaigns by Crassus and Mark Antony were total failures, and although Trajan and Syrian governor Cassius made some progress in the 2nd century CE, both failed to...
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