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Mongol Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (1206-1368) was founded by Genghis Khan (r. 1206-1227), first Great Khan or 'universal ruler' of the Mongol peoples. Genghis forged the empire by uniting nomadic tribes of the Asian steppe and creating a devastatingly effective...
Portuguese Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire was established from the 15th century and eventually stretched from the Americas to Japan. Very often a string of coastal trading centres with defensive fortifications, there were larger territorial colonies like Brazil...
Slavery in the Roman World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Slavery in the Roman World

Slavery was an ever-present feature of the Roman world. Slaves served in households, agriculture, mines, the military, workshops, construction and many services. As many as 1 in 3 of the population in Italy or 1 in 5 across the empire were...
Gallienus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Gallienus

Gallienus was Roman emperor from 253 to 268 CE. Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, the eldest son of Emperor Valerian, was named co-emperor by his father in 253 CE. He was one of many who would claim the throne over the next two decades...
Ancient Roman Society
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Roman Society

Rome began as a small city on the banks of the Tiber River in Italy. The Latin tribes (also known as the Latini or Latians) inhabited the region c. 1000 BCE but the founding of the city is dated to 753 BCE. They were a patrilineal society...
Women in Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia were not only highly respected but, in many cases, considered the equals of males. Women could own land, conduct business, received equal pay, could travel freely on their own, and in the case of royal women, hold...
The Goths
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Goths

The Goths were a Germanic tribe who are frequently referenced for their part in the fall of the Roman Empire and their subsequent rise to power in the region of northern Europe, initially in Italy. They are first referenced by Herodotus as...
Authority in Ancient Rome: Auctoritas, Potestas, Imperium, and the Paterfamilias
Articleby Jesse Sifuentes

Authority in Ancient Rome: Auctoritas, Potestas, Imperium, and the Paterfamilias

Authority in ancient Rome was complex, and as one can expect from Rome, full of tradition, myth, and awareness of their own storied history. Perhaps the ultimate authority was imperium, the power to command the Roman army. Potestas was legal...
Roman Senate
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Senate

The Roman Senate functioned as an advisory body to Rome's magistrates and was composed of the city's most experienced public servants and society's elite. Its decisions carried great weight, even if these were not always converted into laws...
Marcus Agrippa
Definitionby Jesse Sifuentes

Marcus Agrippa

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (l. 64/62 – 12 BCE) was Augustus' (r. 27 BCE - 14 CE) most trusted and unshakably loyal general and his right-hand man in the administration of the city of Rome. Although his name is forever connected with the...
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