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Battle of Adrianople
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Battle of Adrianople

The Battle of Adrianople on August 9, 378 CE ranks among the worst military defeats in all of Roman history. Its estimated losses of over 10,000 are comparable to Roman defeats at Cannae (216 BCE) and Carrhae (53 BCE). The battle pitted the...
Hadrian
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Hadrian

Hadrian (l. 78-138 CE) was emperor of Rome (r. 117-138 CE) and is recognized as the third of the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius) who ruled justly. His reign marked the height of the Roman Empire...
Roman Cavalry
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Cavalry

Cavalry, although never replacing infantry as the mainstay of the Roman army, could provide useful cover on the flanks of armies, could be used as a shock tactic to cause disruption to enemy infantry formations, and could pursue an enemy...
Julius Caesar
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was born 12 July 100 BCE (though some cite 102 as his birth year). His father, also Gaius Julius Caesar, was a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, was of noble birth. Both held to the...
Elagabalus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Elagabalus

Elgabalus was Roman emperor from 218 to 222 CE. Having failed to keep many of his promises to the army, Roman Emperor Macrinus (217 – 218 CE) was becoming increasingly unpopular, and it would only take a little lie from a young boy's...
Antoninus Pius
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Antoninus Pius

Antoninus Pius was Roman emperor from 138 to 161 CE. When Roman emperor Hadrian (r. 117-138 CE) died on July 10, 138 CE, he left, as did his predecessors, an adopted son as his successor, Antoninus Pius. Antoninus - whose last name means...
Marcus Aurelius: Philosopher Emperor or Philosopher-King?
Articleby Steven Umbrello

Marcus Aurelius: Philosopher Emperor or Philosopher-King?

Co-authored by Steven Umbrello and Tina Forsee It is very common to hear in both academic circles, as well as more close-knit Stoic circles, Marcus Aurelius (121 – 180 CE) being referred to as the philosopher king. This is not...
The Arch of Titus, Rome
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Arch of Titus, Rome

The Arch of Titus is a Roman Triumphal Arch which was erected by Domitian in c. 81 CE at the foot of the Palatine hill on the Via Sacra in the Forum Romanum, Rome. It commemorates the victories of his father Vespasian and brother Titus in...
Roman Senate
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Senate

The Roman Senate functioned as an advisory body to Rome's magistrates and was composed of the city's most experienced public servants and society's elite. Its decisions carried great weight, even if these were not always converted into laws...
Trajan
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Trajan

Trajan, or Marcus Ulpius Traianus, was Roman emperor from 98 to 117 CE. Known as a benevolent ruler, his reign was noted for public projects which benefitted the populace such as improving the dilapidated road system, constructing aqueducts...
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