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The Assassination of Julius Caesar
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

The Assassination of Julius Caesar

Veni, vidi, vici! This was the simple message the Roman commander Julius Caesar sent to the Senate in Rome after a resounding victory in the east against King Pharnaces of Pontus - a message that demonstrated both arrogance as well as great...
Leo I
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Leo I

Leo I was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 457 to 474 CE. He was also known as “Leo the Butcher” (Makelles) for the assassination of his patron and rival Aspar. Although his reign was lacklustre and included a serious defeat...
Roman Army
Definitionby James Lloyd

Roman Army

The Roman army, famed for its discipline, organisation, and innovation in both weapons and tactics, allowed Rome to build and defend a huge empire which for centuries would dominate the Mediterranean world and beyond. Overview The Roman...
The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China

The civil service examinations of Imperial China allowed the state to find the best candidates to staff the vast bureaucracy that governed China from the Han Dynasty onwards (206 BCE - 220 CE). The exams were a means for a young male of any...
Legio I Adiutrix
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Legio I Adiutrix

Legio I Adiutrix was a legion of the Roman army formed from veteran sailors after the death of Roman emperor Nero (r. 54-68 CE). During its long career, the legion accompanied Trajan (r. 98-117 CE) on his Dacian and Parthian campaigns, fought...
Roman Science
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Science

The Romans assimilated earlier Greek science for their own purposes, evaluating and then accepting or rejecting that which was most useful, much as they did in other fields such as warfare, art, and theatre. This assimilation of Greek thought...
Roman Naval Warfare
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Naval Warfare

Military supremacy of the seas could be a crucial factor in the success of any land campaign, and the Romans well knew that a powerful naval fleet could supply troops and equipment to where they were most needed in as short a time as possible...
Roman Baths
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Baths

Roman baths were designed for bathing and relaxing and were a common feature of cities throughout the Roman empire. Baths included a wide diversity of rooms with different temperatures, as well as swimming pools and places to read, relax...
The Isaurians and the End of Germanic Influence in Byzantium
Articleby Michael Goodyear

The Isaurians and the End of Germanic Influence in Byzantium

Germanic influence reigned in the Roman Empire from the end of the 4th century CE through the 5th. Germanic individuals took important posts in the government and the military, and Germanic tribes penetrated ever further into lands that had...
Pertinax
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Pertinax

Pertinax was Roman Emperor for three months in 193 CE and, as successor to Commodus, it was hoped that he would restore much needed sobriety to the office of emperor. However, the former teacher, as well as putting in order the affairs of...
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